NOTE:  Inquire about getting access to our collection of dog and animal research on Mendeley.

SECTION 1 - Understanding Studies and Where to find Them

SECTION 2 - Research with Direct Impacts on Dog Training / including training aids and aggrestion

SECTION 3 - Other interesting Research on Dogs (e.g. dog and human health bond, compassion fatigue, etc.)

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SECTION 1:


Useful Definitions:

Ethology - the study of animal behavior

Anthrozoology - the study of human-animal interaction (from the Greek 'anthro' for human and 'zoon' for animal)

Phylogeny - The evolutionary development of a species, a group of organisms, or a particular feature of an organism.

Medical Dictionary (see word in a study you don't understand?  type it into the search bar, get a definition and continue on your way)

Operant behaviour is a behavior emitted or given out of the dog (and is spontaneous, at least on first occurrence). 

Operant learning is an interplay between operant behavior (and its variations) and reinforcement (selection).

Behaviour Modification: psychology term - changing the behavior of animals and people using the scientific principles that guide learning and behavior 

Canine Rehabilitation: using exercises, ultrasound, TENS and other non-invasive technologies to help animals recover from physical injuries or prevent or slow physical processes down

Where did behaviour names like calming signs, fixed action patters, dominance or predatory drift come from - and are they 'real ethology terms'?


NOTE:  Americans use 'behavior' as a spelling, Canadians/British/Europeans use 'behaviour" - both are used on this page depending on author.


Understanding Studies:

Why People Have Trouble Believing Science Sometimes

How to Evaluate the Strength of a Study or Clinical Trial

Elementary Concepts in statistics

Guide to Bio-statistics

(also check out the blog post called "Duh...The Study Said" by going to the blog page and using the search feature with "duh" or some equally fun keyword.)

Note that it is always important to really dig into the foundation of the study to completely understand whether the evidence supports the conclusion of the authors - or what you want to support!  My favourite quote on this is:

“It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of The New England Journal of Medicine.”  


Journal Watch - Where to Find Original Research:

While you may not be able to subscribe to all of these journals, you might visit their websites for the tables of contents or abstracts (or alternatively, set up a search in PubMed and Google Scholar)

 

Journals Related to Canine Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation

• The American Journal of Sports Medicine

• American Journal of Veterinary Research

• Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice (1996-2007); The journal is now called Topics

in Companion Animal Medicine (2008 to Present)

• Journal American Veterinary Medical Association

• Journal Applied Physiology

• Journal of Nutrition

• Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

• Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

• Veterinary Record

• Veterinary Surgery

• Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice (relevant topics only)

 

Other Associations with Newsletters that occasionally publish studies

General Animal Behaviour - Universities Federation for Animal Welfare

Communication, signalling and bioacoustics  - Bioacoustics journal , International Bioacoustics Council

Applied and Clinical Ethology - International Society for Applied Ethology

Anthrozoology - International Society for Anthrozoology and SUMMARY - over 250 pages of human-animal research studies in one place form Anthrozoology

Genetics - The Genetics Society 

Neuroscience and sensory systems - Neuroscience 
A Search Engine devoted entirely to neuroscience, with a full-text database and containing more than 55,000 web pages

Companion Animals - Companion Animal Behaviour Therapy Study Group

 

Scientific Societies on the web

American Psychological Association

Society for Neuroscience

Canadian Psychological Association

Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science (BBCS)

 

 

 

 

E-Tools for Recording Behaviour:

JWatcher - An event recorder and data analysis program, written in Java, that runs on most computers. See http://www.jwatcher.ucla.edu and http://galliform.psy.mq.edu.au/Jwatcher/index.html.  The UCLA site also contains laboratory exercises for teaching behavior scoring and analysis.

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SECTION 2:


TRAINING ARTICLES & RESEARCH on BEHAVIOR 

(of course, this is just Dog Friendship's list of some research we consider very useful to dog professionals)

(some articles may require a subscription to access)


July 15, 2011 Veterinary Behavior Scientific Symposium/ American College of Veterinary Behaviorists and American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior

(when I get a moment, I'll try and subdivide these paper, in the meantime... this is the whole thing)


How the dog's body works:

Useful overview of dog physiology

Predatory-Prey Sequence in Canids - 1997 (and effect on behavior) 

EPILEPSY IN THE DOG - The UK National G.S.D. Help Line

Rule Out Hypoglycemia - by Darleen Rudnick, Pet Nutritionist

On dog hearing and puppy hearing tests from Tufts University.

On urine marking - Anneke Lisberg and Charles Snowdon

On the enteric nervous system, neurotransmitters and more:

The Enteric Nervous System -  This and other articles at Psyking are well worth your time

Think Twice: How the Gut's 'Second Brain' Influences Mood & Well Being -  Scientific American article

The Other Brain Also Deals with Many Woes -   A good New York Times article which may shed some light on serotonin's role in the gut

Adverse Vaccine Reactions - 2005 review of US adverse vaccine reactions from 1999-2003 or 4

Thermoregulation in Dogs

Thirst Following Water Deprivation in Dogs (they don't drink enough)


Overviews and Setting Client Expectations:

There are NO HYPOALLERGENIC dogsCan f 1 levels in hair and homes of different dog breeds: Lack of evidence to describe any dog breed as hypoallergenic, Doris W. Vredegoor, Ton Willemse, Martin D. Chapman, Dick J.J. Heederik, Esmeralda J.M. Krop, The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 25 June 2012 (Article in Press DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.05.013)


Impulsivity in Dogs – Assessment and Treatment - by Jaume Fatju, Spain, World Animal Veterinary Association, World Congress – Vancouver 2001 (discusses brain chemistry in terms of impusivity and aggression)

Behavior-Medicating Misbehavior in Dogs - First printed in the October, 1997, issue of Your Dog newsletter from Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, Columbia Animal Hospital, Columbia, MD

Managing Pets with Behavior Problems: Realistic Expectations - Horowitz in the Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice Journal Volume 38, Issue 5, September 2008 - Pages 1005 - 1021  

RESCUES:  New, J. C., Salman, M. D., King, M., Scarlett, J. M., Kass, P. H., & Hutchison, J. M. (2000). Characteristics of Shelter-Relinquished Animals and Their Owners Compared With Animals and Their Owners in U.S. Pet-Owning Households. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 3(3), 179-201.

Fox, M. W., & Stelzner, D. (1966). Behavioural effects of differential early experience in the dog. Animal Behaviour, 14, 273-281.

Gacsi M, Gyori B, Miklosi A, Viranyi Z, Kubinyi E, Topal J, Csanyi V. (2005). Species-specific differences and similarities in the behavior of hand-

raised dog and wolf pups in social situations with humans. Dev Psychobiol. 47(2):111-22.


Some Breeds Are Easier to Train than Others - but you wouldn't know it from their historic jobs - - Trainability and boldness traits differ between dog breed clusters based on conventional breed categories and genetic relatedness Borbála Turcsán, Enikő Kubinyi, Ádám Miklósi Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1 June 2011 (volume 132 issue 1 Pages 61-70 DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.03.006) - Modern dog breeding has given rise to more than 400 breeds differing both in morphology and behaviour. Traditionally, kennel clubs have utilized an artificial category system based on the morphological similarity and historical function of each dog breed. Behavioural comparisons at the breed-group level produced ambiguous results as to whether the historical function still has an influence on the breed-typical behaviour. Recent genetic studies have uncovered genetic relatedness between dog breeds, which can be independent from their historical function and may offer an alternative explanation of behavioural differences among breeds. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the behaviour profiles of 98 breeds, and the behavioural differences among conventional breed groups based on historical utility and among genetic breed clusters. Owners of 5733 dogs (98 breeds) filled out an online questionnaire in German. Breed trait scores on trainability, boldness, calmness and dog sociability were calculated by averaging the scores of all individuals of the breed. Breeds were ranked on the four traits and a cluster analysis was performed to explore behavioural similarity between breeds.

We found that two of the behaviour traits (trainability and boldness) significantly differed both among the conventional and the genetic breed groups. Using the conventional classification we revealed that Herding dogs were more trainable than Hounds, Working dogs, Toy dogs and Non-sporting dogs; Sporting dogs were also more trainable than Non-sporting dogs. In parallel, Terriers were bolder than Hounds and Herding dogs. Regarding genetic relatedness, breeds with ancient Asian or African origin (Ancient breeds) were less trainable than breeds in the Herding/sighthound cluster and the Hunting breeds. Breeds in the Mastiff/terrier cluster were bolder than the Ancient breeds, the breeds in the Herding/sighthound cluster and the Hunting breeds. Six breed clusters were created on the basis of behavioural similarity. All the conventional and genetic groups had representatives in at least three of these clusters. Thus, the behavioural breed clusters showed poor correspondence to both the functional and genetic categorisation, which may reflect the effect of recent selective processes. Behavioural breed clusters can provide a more reliable characterization of the breeds’ current typical behaviour.

Developing the client’s perception of a controllable cause of their animal’s behavioral problem may build confidence in their ability to address the problem and encourage adherence (not dog but horse, still, useful) Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, Volume 6, Issue 5 , Pages 276-286, September 2011, Fostering adherence to horse behavior counseling, Ruth Jobling, Anthrozoology Unit, Chester Centre for Stress Research, University of Chester, Chester, Cheshire, UK, Emma Creighton * Abstract (shortened)* Counseling services that aim to improve understanding of person-animal  interaction are on the frontline of the horse welfare agenda. The aim of this research was to determine characteristics of horse owners seeking advice about their horse’s behavior that predicted their adherence to that advice. The established science of human behavioral change has largely been applied in the field of health psychology to identify predictors of behavior. A thorough review of human behavioral change literature identified 10 cognitive variables (e.g., attitude toward horse behavior counselors) that had the potential to predict adherence to the advice of a horse behavior counselor. Established self-report questionnaire methodology was adopted to survey an opportunistic sample of 52 clients of horse behavior counselors before they received the advice (initial cognitive profile), 10 days after (post-communication changes), and at 3-month follow-up (long-term changes). Data were preliminarily analyzed using correlation analyses and subsequently, multiple regression analyses were used to generate a model for adherence. Horse behavior counselors cannot influence what clients perceive when they come into the process, but are able to influence cognitive variables during the communication. The amount of post-communication change in value of the outcome of adhering to the advice (β = 0.338, P = 0.033) and attribution of the horse’s behavior problem to external factors (e.g., facilities, time; β = 0.309, P = 0.050) were significant elements of a multiple regression analysis that explained 23.6% of the variance in adherence 10 days after the communication (F2,35 = 6.700, P = 0.003). At 3-month follow-up, there were no associations between adherence and the earlier cognitive profiles, but clients who showed a 3-month increase in positive attitude toward horse behavior counselors were more likely to show long-term adherence (r = 0.389, P = 0.019). Behavior counselors may benefit clients by demonstrating the effects of their advice early in the communication, so that clients value their efforts to adhere to the advice and continue to do so. Horse behavior counselors may also foster adherence to their advice by emphasizing external causes of the horse’s behavior problem, which clients may find more controllable than internal causes such as their level of skill or fear. 

Dogs will tell you if they are frustrated in training - 2013;16(1):19-34. doi: 10.1080/10888705.2013.740974.Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.Jakovcevic A, Elgier AM, Mustaca AE, Bentosela M.SourceLaboratory of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Institute of Medical Research (CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina. adrianajak@gmail.comAbstractDuring extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors.

How often should dogs do training?

 

Training tools - including leashes and collars:

Choke Collars and Collar Corrections Have Some Serious Downsides meta-review on the medical effects of choke collars and collar corrections.  Your additions are welcome!!  As of November, 2011 there appears to be strong evidence that choking collars and collar corrections can contribute to increased intraocular pressure (dogs with eye conditions should wear a harness), paralysis and disc/cervical injury, increased aggression, traumatic respiratory emergencies and collapsed tracheas.  There is weaker evidence needing further study indicating that choking collars and collar corrections can cause post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) and fractures of the lateral bones of the larynx. 

Shock collars create fear and anxiety
-
Schilder, M., Van der Borg, J., 2004. Training dogs with the help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioural effects. Appl Anim Beh Sci, 85, 319-344.- review of study by Dr. Sophia Yin. (more research below)


Flexi leashes can be dangerous! - Consumer Reports notes that retractable leashes have caused human injury.

Function analysis can be a useful tool to link diagnosis to treatment - Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research - Article in Press - Decreasing dog problem behavior with functional analysis: Linking diagnoses to treatment - Nicole R. Dorey, Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Jarvon S. Tobias - College of Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, Monique A.R. Udelll, Department of Social Sciences, Flagler College, Saint Augustine, Florida, Clive D.L. Wynne, Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida - published online 09 April 2012.  * Abstract * Behavioral problems in dogs account for nearly half of the reasons given for relinquishing them to shelters, and thus constitute a significant animal welfare issue. Any successful attempt to manage these problems will require an understanding of the mechanisms that control these behaviors. However, for some of the behavioral problems cited, such as jumping up on people, available treatments are not prescribed after a systematic assessment of the environmental contingencies contributing to the behavior. The current study assesses the use of functional analysis, an established technique for identifying the variables controlling problem behavior in humans, to determine the environmental factors supporting the behavior of jumping up on people in dogs. Statistically significant differences were found in the rate of jumping up behavior across conditions for each dog in the assessment phase. Treatment conditions used the maintaining variable found in the assessment phase. By comparing the rates of jumping up behavior in these conditions, we found the rates to be of lower statistical significance in the treatment condition. Therefore, results show that this methodology is effective in determining the maintaining variables for these individuals, leading to a more precise treatment.


MYTH BUSTING - On Dog Behavior, Temperament and Training

Be a Splitter - Not a Lumper (Bob Bailey) - and his "Suggestions on Better Training" (check his website for some intense workshops on animal behavior)

Yes to Using Reinforcement! - Dogs fundamentally follow those cues that allowed them to obtain reinforcers in their previous learning history - Behavioural Processes, Special Edition on Canine Cognition - Communication between domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans: Dogs are good learners Pages 402-408. - and the expected brain areas light up in MRI scans when they are anticipating a reward 

And Make Your Reinforcements Quick When You're Using a Clicker! - More than one or two seconds increases the chances of getting behavior you don't want (like "where's my treat" demand barking) although you can a dog will "stay with you" and "keep playing the game" if you delay for up to about 30 seconds, 

What's the Best Training Approach? - Not harsh confrontation methods!   Confrontational methods applied by owners before coming to a behavior consult were associated with aggressive responses in many cases - Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors  Applied Animal Behaviour ScienceVolume 117, Issues 1-2February 2009Pages 47-54, Meghan E. Herron, Frances S. Shofer, Ilana R. ReisnerUK Study - Rooney, Bradshaw & Hilby, 2004 (survey of owners) that found a relationship between punishment training and separation anxiety, UK Study - Rooney, Bradshaw 2002 Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75:161–176.](video with 50 dog/human teams) training after a play session can be highly effective.

  • Top five techniques that can contribute to trainer injury (University of Pennsylvania study):

Technique

%f dogs reacting aggressively

Hit or kick the dog

43%

Force the dog to release an item from its mouth

38%

Muzzle the dog

36%

Alpha Roll

31%

Dominance down

29%

Less confrontational methods may not be any better.  The survey also found the following methods involving indirect confrontation also could trigger a dog bite.

Technique

% dogs reacting aggressively

Growl at the dog

41%

Stare the dog down

30%

Water or spray bottle

20%

Yell 'No'

15%

Forced exposure (Make it face something) 

12%

Methods such as clicker training triggered a response in 0% of the dogs. But is it effective?  The same survey also asked owners to rank how effective the various methods used had been.  Owners reported more positive outcomes with non-confrontational methods than with punishment based techniques. 

Dogs Can Be Allowed to Keep Toys and Win Games! UK Study - Rooney, Bradshaw 2002 Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75:161–176.](video with 50 dog/human teams) that found that dogs who got to keep a toy at the end of a game was not more aggressive towards its owner than if the human kept the toy and that dogs who become relentlessly pushy about seeking more play time should probably not be allowed to keep the toy.

Playing with Tugs and Sleeping on Beds Don't Mean More Aggression Towards Owner! - Goodloe and Borchelt in 1998 - Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 303 - 338 - Companion Dog Temperament Traits.  Spoiling your dog does not increase the number of behaviour problems

Dogs Have Feelings! - Most likely yes, according to Morris et. al. in 2008 (Cognition & Emotion 22(1), 3-20) including fear, anger, joy and jealousy.  A 2012 study in the journal Animal Cognition showed empathy. The science and where it's at is also well described in this December, 2011 interview with Jaak Panksepp, a neuroscientist at Washington State University.  See this post from Patricia McConnell on dog anger and also fairness.  A useful article is Temple Grandin's 2002 article "Animals Are Not Things".

Both Genetics and Training Influence Behavior!  - 2011 Study notes it's both genetics and learning - dog's can't read minds but base their human interactions on their lifetime experience, claims U of Florida researchers Udell and Wynne.  Learning & Behavior, 1–14., Coat colour can influence reactivity according to Korean researchers (and generally coat colour is influenced by genetics) - Behavioural Processes Volume 84, Issue 2, June 2010, Pages 568-572

Summary of Dog Temperament (Assessment) Research to 2005 - in this Applied Animal Behavior Science article

Movement, Talking and Tapping Your Chest Gets Dogs to Play! Animal Behaviour, 61:715– 722. - ]when people ran toward the dog, ran away from the dog or tapped their own chests, the signals were highly effective at communicating an intent to play and thus, at initiating play with dogs - and all signals did better when humans vocalized.  Patting the floor and whispering got much less response from the dogs. Plus How a command is said matters and Dogs respond to a human pointing over smell

Vocalizing and Getting Your Dog's Attention Before Looking at Something Gets them to Look Too... Current Biology - Dogs' Gaze Following Is Tuned to Human Communicative SignalsErnő Téglás, Anna Gergely, Krisztina Kupán, Ádám Miklósi, József Topál, 05 January 2012, online (eye-tracking techniques can be used for studying dogs' social-cognitive skills & dogs' gaze following is tied to the expression of the humans' communicative intent.)  Dogs also indicate direction to humans with their gaze.

Dogs are very capable of using objects to achieve a goal - including pulling on a rope to open a door, ringing a doorbell to go out or (unfortunately) figuring out how to open things that are closed.

Bradley Philip Smith, Robert George Appleby, Carla Anita Litchfield, Spontaneous tool-use: An observation of a dingo (Canis dingo) using a table to access an out-of-reach food reward, Behavioural Processes, Volume 89, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages 219-224, ISSN 0376-6357, 10.1016/j.beproc.2011.11.004.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376635711002300)

A good run is rewarding for dogs (and people)J Exp Biol. 2012 Apr 15;215(Pt 8):1331-6. Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the 'runner's high'. Raichlen DA, Foster AD, Gerdeman GL, Seillier A, Giuffrida A. Source School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. raichlen@email.arizona.edu * Abstract - Humans report a wide range of neurobiological rewards following moderate and intense aerobic activity, popularly referred to as the 'runner's high', which may function to encourage habitual aerobic exercise. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous neurotransmitters that appear to play a major role in generating these rewards by activating cannabinoid receptors in brain reward regions during and after exercise. Other species also regularly engage in endurance exercise (cursorial mammals), and as humans share many morphological traits with these taxa, it is possible that exercise-induced eCB signaling motivates habitual high-intensity locomotor behaviors in cursorial mammals. If true, then neurobiological rewards may explain variation in habitual locomotor activity and performance across mammals. We measured circulating eCBs in humans, dogs (a cursorial mammal) and ferrets (a non-cursorial mammal) before and after treadmill exercise to test the hypothesis that neurobiological rewards are linked to high-intensity exercise in cursorial mammals. We show that humans and dogs share significantly increased exercise-induced eCB signaling following high-intensity endurance running. eCB signaling does not significantly increase following low-intensity walking in these taxa, and eCB signaling does not significantly increase in the non-cursorial ferrets following exercise at any intensity. This study provides the first evidence that inter-specific variation in neurotransmitter signaling may explain differences in locomotor behavior among mammals. Thus, a neurobiological reward for endurance exercise may explain why humans and other cursorial mammals habitually engage in aerobic exercise despite the higher associated energy costs and injury risks, and why non-cursorial mammals avoid such locomotor behaviors.

Some dog owners "get" stress signs - others need some help recognizing the stress: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research - Article in Press - Perception of dogs’ stress by their owners, Chiara MaritiAngelo GazzanoJane Lansdown MoorePaolo BaragliLaura ChelliClaudio Sighieri, Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, published online 26 April 2012. * Abstract Questionnaires potentially have a broad applicability in measuring stress levels in dogs, as owners know their dogs’ behavior and personality better than anyone else. The aim of this research was to evaluate how owners perceive stress in their dogs through understanding of displayed behaviors. The survey was carried out using 1,190 questionnaires completed by dog owners. More than half of respondents were able to correctly identify stress as a short- or long-term alteration of the psychophysical equilibrium that can develop into illness. This ability was higher with higher educational levels. The behavioral indicators of stress most frequently identified by owners were trembling and whining, followed by aggressiveness, excessive barking, and panting. More subtle behaviors such as looking elsewhere, turning head, yawning, and nose licking were more rarely reported, suggesting that few owners are able to correctly interpret and intervene in early stages of stress. The vast majority of respondents indicated that dogs were stressed seldom or only in specific situations. Men generally considered their dogs as experiencing low stress more often than did women, whereas women considered their dogs as being moderately stressed more often than did men. An owner’s ability to recognize behavioral signs of stress is important, as it enables the owner to help the animal to avoid welfare problems, such as stressful situations, and favors a rapid recovery of psychophysical homeostasis by interrupting the progression to overstress and distress. The results show that some owners can help in protecting the welfare of their dogs, but that many owners would benefit from educational efforts to improve their ability to interpret their dogs’ behavior.


Miscellaneous:

Summary of Dog Research to 2009 - in this Science article and Summary to 2008 in the Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior.  

Mason, G. | Clubb, R. | Latham, N. | Vickery, S. - Why and how should we use environmental enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? - Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Volume 102, Issue 3-4, 2007, Pages 163-188, 42


Bassett, L. | Buchanan-Smith, H.M. - Effects of predictability on the welfare of captive animals - Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Volume 102, Issue 3-4, 2007, Pages 223-245, 38

Svartberg, K. - Breed-typical behaviour in dogs - Historical remnants or recent constructs? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Volume 96, Issue 3-4, 2006, Pages 293-313, 33

US Group - National Canine Research Council (focused on dog legislation, reporting on dog bites)

Scientific American - article "looks at" the coincidence of light sclera (the white of the eye) in dogs and humans. It combines solid, up-to-the-minute anthropological research with open speculation about how dogs' and humans' ability to track each other's gazes might have contributed to our co-evolution (and even to the "victory" of homo sapiens over Neanderthals). May-June 2012_ (http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/id.96/past.aspx) Volume 100, Number 3 page: 198


Dog Park Cleanliness:

Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs, but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or in fecal/FA testing.  Note that the dogs were all primarily owned by Colorado U vet tech students so could be expected to be in good health.  Vet Parasitol. 2012 Mar 23;184(2-4):335-40. Epub 2011 Aug 18. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado. Wang A, Ruch-Gallie R, Scorza V, Lin P, Lappin MRS


Dog-Person Bond:

Marshall-Pescini - Dogs Choose Smaller Amount of Food over Larger if Humans Give Attention to the Food - Do Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Make Counterproductive Choices Because They Are Sensitive to Human Ostensive Cues? Marshall-Pescini S, Passalacqua C, Miletto Petrazzini ME, Valsecchi P, Prato-Previde E (2012) Do Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Make Counterproductive Choices Because They Are Sensitive to Human Ostensive Cues? PLoS ONE 7(4): e35437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035437

Brown, S. E. (2004). The human-animal bond and self psychology: (abstract in newsletter) Toward a new understanding. Society & Animals, 12 (1), 67-86.

Brown, S. E. (in press). Companion animals as selfobjects. Anthrozoos.

Chicago Magazine article summarizing data on animals and children and the relationship of abuse of violence

Mutual Co-Evoluation - Csanyi 2005, Vila et al 1997 (for mainstream book see "The Wolf in the Parlor" [humans contributing colour sense and cognitive skills, dogs night vision, smell/olefactory, hearing)

From the World of Learning Theory (strangely, dogs and people learn in many of the same ways as say...chickens...)

Arousal, Memory and "Being Able to Compute:

Stress, Cognition and Human Performance - An Overview

How We Learn - Amazingly Great (and simple) description of Neuroscience 101 and Learning

Behaviorology

Jones, A. C., & Josephs, R. A. (2006). Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Horm Behav, 50(3), 393-400.

Kirchofer, Katharina - Dogs understand imperative pointing (get this hidden object and be rewarded) - Dogs (Canis familiaris), but Not Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Understand Imperative PointingKirchhofer KC, Zimmermann F, Kaminski J, Tomasello M (2012) Dogs (Canis familiaris), but Not Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Understand Imperative Pointing. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30913. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030913

Empathic-like responding by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to distress in humans: an exploratory studyAnimal Cognition (29 May 2012), pp. 1-9, doi:10.1007/s10071-012-0510-1 by Deborah Custance, Jennifer Mayer


Medical Issues & Aggression - conditions ?that may cause aggressive behavior in dogs


MY SUMMARY

  • Any condition which causes inflammation of the brain, can also cause neurological problems, as can rumors or chemical imbalances such as low serotonin
  • Arthritis, hip dysplasia, invetebral disc disease and cancer also lead to pain that can cause sudden aggression during handling or movement
  • Low blood sugar
  • Distemper
  • Medicines - Corticosteroid use can increase irritable aggression
  • Resource guarding and an increased appetite could be related to hormonal diseases.
  • Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome which is associated with age related degeneration 
  • The loss of hearing or sight or eye disease can cause a dog to be caught off guard and increase fear-related aggression/defensive behaviour
  • Epilepsy may also lead to aggression.  Certain dog breeds are more likely than others are more susceptible to hereditary Primary Epilepsy, but there are many other causes of epilepsy, some of which are unknown.
  • gene - dopamine transporter polymorphism

Journal of Veterinary Behavior— Clinical Applications and Research, February 23, 2012 - Tomàs Camps, of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, in Spain

Sudden changes in a dog's temperament, for example episodes of aggression, could be related to some internal pain they are feeling, which sets them on edge if they are touched.  Dogs that had never been aggressive before the onset of pain began to behave in this way in situations where an attempt is made to control them. Irritability from pain can make otherwise affectionate dogs violent and already aggressive dogs even more aggressive. As such, the researchers say, their findings support the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of pain in dogs. http://news.yahoo.com/sudden-aggression-dogs-often-sign-pain-173250979.html

Possible behavioral effects of exogenous corticosteroids on dog behavior: a preliminary investigation by Lorella Notari, Daniel Mills Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research (Vol.6, Issue 6 -  Pages 321-327, November 2011) http://www.journalvetbehavior.com/article/S1558-7878%2811%2900031-1/abstract?source=aemf 

  * Abstract * Glucocorticoids are widely used in veterinary medicine and their physical side effects are well-known; however, the effects on dog behavior linked to their role in the stress response and effects on mood have not been reported in previously published data. In this article, retrospective owner reports of the behavioral changes in dogs during corticosteroid therapy in a series of cases have been described so as to generate items for future use in a controlled structured questionnaire. The perceptions of behavioral changes in dogs during corticosteroid therapy were investigated through semi-structured open interviews of the owners of 31 dogs of different breeds, genders, and ages. All dogs had received corticosteroid therapies in the past 6 months. In all, 18 dogs had been administered methylprednisolone (dose range, 0.2-1 mg/kg), 8 were administered prednisolone (dose range, 0.2-1 mg/kg), and 5 were administered dexamethasone (dose range, 0.01-0.3). Methylprednisolone and prednisolone were used for dermatological conditions, and dexamethasone was used for orthopedic conditions. Owners were asked to describe their dog’s behaviors both on and off corticosteroid therapy. Interviews were ceased when answers became repetitive with no new reported behavioral change (interview to redundancy). In all, 11 owners reported behavioral changes in their dogs; 9 dogs were reported to show more than one behavioral change. Six dogs reportedly showed nervousness and/or restlessness, 3 showed an increase in startle responses, 3 showed food guarding, 2 showed a decrease in their activity level, 3 showed an increase in avoidance responses, 4 showed irritable aggression, and 2 dogs increased barking. Semi-structured interviews can be useful preliminary tools for the identification of areas of future investigation, and the outcomes of the interviews reported in this article will be used in further quantitative research, to investigate more rigorously the possible relationship between these signs and corticosteroid use in dogs.

EYE CONDITIONS: Summary (You can find the entire study in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol 33, No 8, July ’92, by Murphy, Zadnik & Mannis). The researchers looked at the physical structure of the eye (no one asked the dogs if the marks on the wall were bones or dinner bowls!), to evaluate the eyesight of 240 dogs presented at the UW-Madison clinic, and in 53 GSDs in Guide Dogs for the Blind programs.  In the general study, they found 3 breeds in which over 50% of the dogs were myopic: 53% of GSDs, 50% of Miniature Schnauzers (but note many of those dogs were in the same family), and 64% of Rottweilers. In contrast, only 19% of the GSDs in the Guide Dog program showed signs of myopia.  But there’s more.Here’s a quote from the study that really got my attention: “By far, the most common form of myopia in humans is juvenile myopia; this occurs at 6 – 14 yr of age . . . “. Wow. I had no idea that there was such a thing called “juvenile-onset myopia” in people. Wouldn’t that suggest that at least one significant factor in Juvenile Onset Shyness in dogs MIGHT relate to their eyesight? (comment by Patricia McConnell).


Medical Causes of Aggression In Dogs by: Dr. Nicholas Dodman

See the following conditions that may lead to dog aggression for more information:

Brain chemistry/Imbalances
• • Encephalitis (bacterial or viral) Distemper
Hypoglycemia
Hydrocephalus in brachycephalics
Brain tumors
Head trauma
Behavioral Seizures
Medicines

Thyroid Issues and Behavior

Hypothyroidism
Serum TSH within the Reference Range as a Predictor of Future Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: 11-Year Follow-Up of the HUNT Study in Norway

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, |January 2012 Åsvold et al. 97 (1): 93 - Abstract: Serum TSH in the upper part of the reference range may sometimes be a response to autoimmune thyroiditis in early stage and may therefore predict future hypothyroidism. Conversely, relatively low serum TSH could predict future hyperthyroidism.  A total of 10,083 women and 5,023 men without previous thyroid disease who had a baseline TSH of 0.20–4.5 mU/liter and who participated at a follow-up examination 11 yr later. TSH within the reference range at the higher limit is positively and strongly associated with the risk of future hypothyroidism.  TSH within but at the lower limit of the reference range may be associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism.

Article by Shannon Wilkinson

Thyroid Dysfuction as a Cause of Aggression in Dogs and Cats - L.P. Aronson DVM & N.H. Dodman RVMS
Presented at the 43. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Veterinarmedizinischen Gesellschaft Fachgruppe Kleintierkrankheiten 29-31 August 1997 in HCC Hannover

Canine Behaviors Associated With Hypothyroidism (cost for article $5 US for 2 day access)
Recently, there have been anecdotal reports noting a potential relationship between hypothyroidism and canine aggression. In these circumstances, aggression may be the only presenting complaint with the animal often described as having developed a “grumpy” attitude. While the underlying basis of this association has not been determined, hypothyroidism-associated aggression should be considered a specific type of aggression that appears to respond well to thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

Could dog guidelines be similar to the May, 2012 guidelines on treating maladaptive aggression in youth published in Pediatrics? Among the strongest recommendations for drug therapy: Pediatrics article on engagement, assessment, and management and Pediatrics article on treatment and ongoing management:

Target the initial drug treatment to the underlying disorder — i.e., a disorder that antedates the onset of aggressive behavior.

- Consider adding an antipsychotic drug if aggression persists after a trial of treatments (including psychosocial treatments) for the underlying disorder.

- Use recommended titration schedules and provide an adequate trial before changing or adding medication.

- Conduct side effect and metabolic assessments, because somnolence, weight gain, and other abnormalities are common and may affect health behaviors like diet and exercise

Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research - Article in Press - Assessment of serotonin in serum, plasma, and platelets of aggressive dogs - Marta LeónLaboratorios Merial, S.A. Servicio Técnico-Animales de Compañía, Barcelona, Spain, Belén Rosado, DVM, PhD, Departamento de Patología Animal, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, Sylvia García-BelenguerGema ChacónAinara VillegasJorge Palacio - published online 26 April 2012. * Abstract * 

Canine aggression is the most common reason for the referral of dogs to behavior practices. In addition, dog bites represent an important problem for public health and animal welfare. The serotonergic system is believed to play an important role in modulating aggression. The aim of the present study was (1) to assess the suitability of different types of blood samples for measuring circulating serotonin in canine clinical studies, and (2) to investigate the relationship between the serotonergic system and canine aggression. The assessment of serotonin was simultaneously carried out in serum, plasma, and platelets of 28 aggressive and 10 nonaggressive dogs with an enzyme immunoassay technique. The mean serotonin concentration in aggressive dogs was significantly lower than in nonaggressive dogs in all the assayed samples. These findings suggest an inverse relationship between the activity of the serotonergic system and canine aggression. Considering the simplicity of the methodology, the authors propose sampling serum as the most suitable method for measuring circulating serotonin in dogs.

Compulsive Behavior in Dogs

Luescher, A. U. (2003). Diagnosis and management of compulsive disorders in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 33(2), 253-267, vi.

NY Times excerpt from book, Zoobiquity, co-written by a physician who became interested in the overlap between human and non-human pathologies. Her overview of the neurological bases of addiction and compulsive self-harming behavior http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/10/opinion/sunday/our-animal-natures.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ref=opinion_ 

Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Article in Press - The use of tramadol in a Labrador retriever presenting with self-mutilation of the tail - Helen E. Zulch, Daniel S. MillsRuth LambertRobert M. Kirberger - *Abstract * A 30-month-old Labrador retriever bitch with a history of atopy was presented for acute-onset tail biting that was leading to self-mutilation. The problem began 8 months before consultation and was resolved after 2 months, but it recurred 3 months later and continued for 3 months until the time of consultation. The current episode was difficult to interrupt and was being controlled through the use of an Elizabethan collar. There had been no history of injury to the tail. On examination of the tail, an irregularity was palpated approximately midway on the dorsal surface. Radiographs of the tail showed soft-tissue swelling cranially and presence of an ossicle between the mid-caudal vertebrae. Mutilation stopped with administration of tramadol and paracetamol and started again when the medication was discontinued. No behavior modification was implemented. Although there is a possibility that the tramadol was treating a psychogenically driven self-mutilation behavior, it is more likely that pain was the initiating cause for the behavior. This case report highlights the importance of careful medical evaluation of suspected behavioral problems and discusses the possible use of tramadol in self-mutilation.


Impulsivity in Dogs

Impulsivity - the inability to control or inhibit behavior when appropriate:

Wright, HF., Mills, SD., Pollux, MJ. Development and validation of a psychometric tool for assessing impulsivity in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2011; (24); 210-225. 

Wright, HF., Mills, SD., Pollux, MJ. Behavioral ad physiological correlates of impulsivity in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Physiology & Behavior, 2012; 105 (3):Â 676-82 

Kubrinyi - Possible Genetic marker for activity/impulsivity in dogs - Polymorphism in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Gene Is Associated with Activity-Impulsivity in German Shepherd DogsKubinyi E, Vas J, Hejjas K, Ronai Z, Brúder I, et al. (2012) Polymorphism in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Gene Is Associated with Activity-Impulsivity in German Shepherd Dogs. PLoS ONE 7(1): e30271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030271


Aggressive Behavior in Dogs /Anxiety Disordered Behaviour

(note: increasing it is being recognized the root cause of some aggressive behaviour is anxiety, the rest a variety of medical issues)

Alexander, S. (2004). Good dog a program to help dog owners address aggression problems in dogs. Animal Behavior Consulting: Theory and Practice, 1(1), 47-65.

American_Veterinary_Society_of_Animal_Behavior. (2007). Guidelines on the Use of Punishment for Dealing with Behavior Problems in Animals [Electronic Version]. AVSAB. Retrieved November 24, 2007 fromhttp://www.avsabonline.org/avsabonline/images/stories/punishment%20guidelines-aversives%20effects-definitions.pdf.

Andy, O. J., & Velamati, S. (1978). Limbic system seizures and aggressive behavior (superkindling effects). Pavlov J Biol Sci, 13(4), 251-264.

    * Abstract: This study was done to further analyze the neural mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior associated with psychomotor or temporal lobe seizures. The studies revealed that superkindling the aggressive system by sequential stimulations at seizure-inducing thresholds, of two or more sites in the limbic, hypothalamic, and basal ganglia structures facilitated the production of aggressive seizures. Aggressive behavior in the freely moving cat was evaluated in relation to the occurrence of hissing and growling during stimulation, after-discharge and postictal period. The behavior was correlated with the frequency of the elicited seizures and the seizure durations. Aggression did develop as a component behavioral manifestation of the limbic (psychomotor) seizure. Development of aggressive seizures was facilitated by "priming" the aggressive system. Optimum levels of aggressive behavior occurred with seizures of medium duration. Catecholamine blockers tended to attentuate the occurrence of aggression, whereas the agonist tended to facilitate it. Once the aggressive system was rendered hyperexcitable, exteroceptive stimuli also evoked aggressive attack behavior. It was concluded that repeatedly recurring limbic system seizures through superkindling mechanisms can eventually render the limbic-basal ganglia-preoptico-hypothalamic aggressive system hyper-responsive to both recurring seizures and to exteroceptive stimuli with resulting aggressive behavior with or without an accompanying seizure.

Appleby, D. L., Bradshaw, J. W. S., and Casey, R. A. (2002). Relationship between aggressive and avoidance behaviour by dogs and their experience in the first six months of life. Veterinary Record, 150, 434-438.

Aronson, L. P., and Dodman, N.H. (1997). Thyroid Dysfunction as a Cause of Aggression in Dogs and Cats. Retrieved February 4, 2005, from http://www.beaconforhealth.org/Thyroid-Aggression.htm

    * Introductory paragraph: In human medicine, behavioral and psychological changes associated with thyroid dysfunction were noted in the nineteenth century. The behavioral abnormalities seen in the hyperthyroid cat have been well described in the literature, and mimic closely the restlessness, insomnia and irritability or aggression described in humans with thyrotoxicosis. Approximately 80% of hyperthyroid cats are hyperactive, while 10-25% are reported to be aggressive, Cats, as well as people, may experience the rarer manifestation of apathetic thyrotoxicosis, characterized by lethargy and depression. This is seen in approximately 10% of feline cases. Hyperthyroid cats are rarely presented to the veterinarian for behavioral signs, Perhaps because aggression is primarily wen when the cat is restrained, we as a profession are more likely to experience this aspect of the disease than the cats' owners, Treating the underlying thyroid problem generally resolves the behavioral problems however, and because onset is often insidious, it is only after the endocrine imbalance has been addressed that the owners appreciate the deterioration in their animal's behavior.

Balaban, M. T., Rhodes, D.L., and Neuringer, A. (1990). Orienting and defense responses to punishment: effects on learning. Biological Psychology, 30, 203-217.

    * Abstract: Two groups of students attempted to learn sequences of letter-number pairs. For both groups, a tone signalled each error. However, for aversive punishment subjects, a mildly painful electric shock followed the tone 20% of the time, whereas the informational punishment subjects received only the tone. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) and cardiac interbeat intervals indicated the presence of an orienting response to the tone in informational punishment subjects and a defense response to the tone in aversive punishment subjects. Accompanying these were significant differences in behavior: aversive punishment subjects completed fewer sequences and had higher error rates. The two groups did not differ in measures of tonic arousal. Session trends suggested that the cardiac orienting response developed in both groups as subjects learned to use the information in the punishment contingency. Defense responses to aversive punishers may complete with orienting responses necessary to the efficient learning of complex tasks.

Bandura, A., Ross, D., and Ross, S.A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582.

Beata, C. A. (2001). Diagnosis and treatment of aggression in dogs and cats. Retrieved February 3, 2005, from http://www.ivis.org/advances/Behavior_Houpt/beata/ivis.pdf

Beaver, B. V. et al. (2001). A community approach to dog bite prevention American Veterinary Medical Association Task Force on Canine Aggression and Human-Canine Interactions. JAVMA, 218(11), 1732-1749.


Beaver, B. V. (1993). Profiles of dogs presented for aggression. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 29, 564-569.


Bernstein, I. S. (1981). Dominance: the baby and the bath water. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 419-457.


Bettencourt, B. A., Talley, A., Benjamin, A. J., & Valentine, J. (2006). Personality and aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull, 132(5), 751-777.


Birdsall, T. C. (1998). 5-Hydroxytryptophan: A Clinically-Effective Serotonin Precursor. Alternative Medical Review, 3(4), 271-280.

    * Abstract: 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the intermediate metabolite of the essential amino acid L-tryptophan (LT) in the biosynthesis of serotonin. Intestinal absorption of 5-HTP does not require the presence of a transport molecule, and is not affected by the presence of other amino acids; therefore it may be taken with meals without reducing its effectiveness. Unlike LT, 5-HTP cannot be shunted into niacin or protein production. Therapeutic use of 5-HTP bypasses the conversion of LT into 5-HTP by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin. 5-HTP is well absorbed from an oral dose, with about 70 percent ending up in the bloodstream. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and effectively increases central nervous system (CNS) synthesis of serotonin. In the CNS, serotonin levels have been implicated in the regulation of sleep, depression, anxiety, aggression, appetite, temperature, sexual behaviour, and pain sensation. Therapeutic administration of 5-HTP has been shown to be effective in treating a wide variety of conditions, including depression, fibromyalgia, binge eating associated with obesity, chronic headaches, and insomnia.


Blackshaw, J.K. (1991). An overview of types of aggressive behaviour in dogs and methods of treatment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 30(3/4): 351-361.

    * Abstract: In 223 cases of dogs presented to a specialist behavioural clinic in Brisbane, Australia, 87 (39%) were for severe aggression. The classes of aggression included dominance (31.6%), territorial (29%), predatory (12.3%), intermale (12.3%), sibling rivalry (7.9%), fear biting (6%) and idiopathic rage (0.9%). The breeds most represented which attacked humans were the Bull Terrier (16%), German Shepherd and crosses (15%), Cattle dog breeds (Blue Heeler and crosses, 9.2%), Terrier breeds (9.2%), Labrador (8%), Poodle and Cocker Spaniel (both 5.7%) and Rottweiler (4.6%). The dangerous dog list put out by the local Brisbane City Council includes the first three breeds mentioned and the Rottweiler as the top four breeds causing aggression problems. Hospital records in Victoria and Queensland confirm that most damage is caused to humans by Bull Terriers and German Shepherds. Many breeds similar to those in our study are also represented in American data on aggressive breeds. Treatments included obedience training only, restraint only, obedience and restraint, synthetic progestins and obedience, castration, progestins and obedience, castration and obedience, use of chlorpromazine and as a last resort, euthanasia (12.6%). Entire males formed the largest group (44%), followed by castrated males and females (both 21%) and spayed females (15%). Several breeds (Boxer, Briand, Samoyed and St. Bernard) only attacked other animals and birds. This study reinforces evidence that social disruption is caused by aggressive dogs, but it also indicates that many responsible clients seek advice on how to deal with this behavioural problem.


Blackshaw, J. (n/d). Meaningful temperament assessment for aggression in dogs - can it be done? Retrieved June 25, 2004, fromhttps://secure.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proc99/blackshaw.htm

Borchelt, P. L., and Voith, V.L. (1996). Dominance Aggression in Dogs. In V. L. Voith, and Borchelt, P.L. (Ed.), Readings in Companion Animal Behavior (pp. 230-237). Trenton, NJ: Veterinary Learning Systems.

Cameron, D B. (1997). Canine dominance associated aggression: Concepts, incidence, and treatment in a private behavior practice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 52(3-4): 243-263.

    * Abstract: Dominance-associated aggression (DA) is a normal, natural, evolutionarily selected trait in many species including the canine species. A review of 35 DA cases presented to a small, private, behavior-only veterinary practice revealed that attention addiction was the most commonly associated (66%) secondary diagnosis. The diagnosis of DA was based on standard criteria. Treatments emphasized owner education and understanding of the problem in addition to common behavior modification, surgical, and pharmacological therapies. The necessity for the owners' gaining psychological leadership in relation to the dog was central to the suggested therapy for 34 of the 35 cases. A phone survey was successful in reaching 34 of the 35 cases. Owners' reports showed that 12% of their dogs showed excellent improvement, 44% reported good improvement, and 32% fair improvement. The owners reported themselves as 97% very or extremely pleased with the quality of information received. These figures and other aspects of canine DA were compared with a similar study done at a large, institutional behavior practice. The results were generally quite similar: DA is predominantly a male trait, found in a wide range of small to large purebred and mixed-bred dogs. DA signs are often apparent in quite young puppies, but do not become of significant concern to most pet owners until the dog is 6 to 24 months old. Both studies supported the concept that DA dogs are reliably responsive to treatment.

Camps, TomásJournal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Volume 7, Issue 2 , Pages 99-102, March 2012 - Pain-related aggression in dogs: 12 clinical cases, Tomás Camps, DVM, MSc, Animal Nutrition and Welfare Service, Department of Animal and Food Science, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici, Marta Amat, Valentina M. MariottiSusana Le BrechXavier Manteca, Animal Nutrition and Welfare Service, Department of Animal and Food Science, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Belalterra (Barcelona), Spain - *bstract*  The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the main features of pain-related aggression in dogs. Twelve dogs presented for aggressive problems at the Veterinary Hospital of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain, were included, and a questionnaire was used to gather information on the context of the aggression, body posture during the attack, impulsiveness, and aggressive behavior before the onset of the pain-eliciting condition. The most common cause of pain was hip dysplasia (66.7%), but no relationship was found between the cause of pain and the characteristics of the aggressive behavior. Dogs were classified as having been aggressive before or after the onset of painful condition. Dogs that had not been aggressive before the onset of the pain-eliciting condition were more impulsive (df = 1, χ2 = 5.3, P = 0.0209), showed aggression as a result of manipulation context more frequently (df = 1, χ2 = 6, P = 0.0143), and adopted a defensive body posture more frequently (df = 1, χ2 = 3.733, P = 0.0533) than dogs that had been aggressive before the onset of pain. These results suggest that previous expression of aggressive behavior has a major effect on the pattern of pain-related aggression in dogs.

Chase, I. D., Bartolomeo, C., & Dugatkin, L., A. (1994). Aggressive interactions and inter-contest interval: how long do winners keep winning? Animal Behaviour, 48, 393-400.

Coccaro, E. F., Kavoussi, R. J., and Hauger, R. L. (1997). Serotonin function and antiaggressive response to fluoxetine: a pilot study. Biological Psychiatry, 42(7), 546-552.

    * Abstract: BACKGROUND: The reported inverse relationship between indices of central serotonin (5-HT) function and indices of impulsive aggression in human subjects suggests the possibility that enhancement of 5-HT activity will reduce impulsive aggressive behavior. Although evidence for this hypothesis is emerging, the relationship between baseline central 5-HT system function and antiaggressive responses to treatment with 5-HT agents has not yet been examined in human subjects. METHODS: In this pilot study, we examined the relationship between: a) pretreatment prolactin responses to d-fenfluramine (PRL[d-FEN]) challenge; and b) antiaggressive responses to 12 weeks of treatment with either fluoxetine or placebo in 15 impulsively aggressive personality disordered subjects as observed in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. RESULTS: Among all subjects there were positive correlations between the pretreatment PRL[d-FEN] response and the percent improvement in Overt Aggression Scale-Modified scores for "Aggression" and "Irritability." These correlations were present in the fluoxetine (n10), but not in the placebo (n 5), treated subjects. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest the possibility that the antiaggressive response to fluoxetine is directly, rather than inversely, dependent on the responsiveness of central 5-HT synapses in the brain of impulsive aggressive personality disordered subjects.

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Health Newsletter. (n/d). Early recognition and prevention of canine aggression. http://www.hilltopanimalhospital.com/aggression.htm

    * Introduction: It is difficult to find a book or an article about canine aggression that does not begin by stating two givens: Aggression is the most common and usually the most serious behavior problem in dogs. And more dogs are given up to shelters (and subsequently euthanatized) because of aggression rather than for any other reason. Veterinary behavior clinics and individual animal behaviorists throughout the United States report that canine aggression is the most common diagnosis for dogs they are asked to examine and treat. But as the euthanasia figures indicate, treatment for aggression is not always successful. Some behaviorists go as far as to say that aggression is a chronic problem that can be controlled in the majority of cases but can never be cured. The experts also say that owner compliance with treatment and early recognition of aggressive tendencies are critical to management of the problem. Management in these cases can be translated another and blunter way-critical to the life of the dog.

Dehasse, J., Braem, M., and Schroll, S. (n/d). Aggressive Behaviours in Dogs: A New Descriptive-Contextual Classification. Retrieved January 4, 2005, from http://joeldehasse.com/a-english/aggression-dogs-classification.html

    * Introduction: There are many different classifications of aggressive behaviours in dogs that do not seem to agree with each other. Our intention is to review and analyse these classifications and to propose a clinically operative classification based on the integration of several existing ones.

Delgado, J. M. (1976). Neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper, 52(18 Suppl), 1-19.

    * Abstract: Causality, neurological mechanisms, and behavioral manifestations may be heterogeneous in different forms of aggressive behavior, but some elements are shared by all forms of violence, including the necessity of sensory inputs, the coding and decoding of information according to acquired frames of reference, and the activation of pre-established patterns of response. Understanding and prevention of violence requires a simultaneous study of its social, cultural, and economic aspects, at parity with an investigation of its neurological mechanisms. Part of the latter information may be obtained through animal experimentation, preferably in non-human primates. Feline predatory behavior has no equivalent in man, and therefore its hypothalamic representation probably does not exist in the human brain. Codes of information, frames of reference for sensory perception, axis to evaluate threats, and formulas for aggressive performance are not established genetically but must be learned individually. We are born with the capacity to learn aggressive behavior, but not with established patterns of violence. Mechanisms for fighting which are acquired by individual experience may be triggered in a similar way by sensory cues, volition, and by electrical stimulation of specific cerebral areas. In monkeys, aggressive responses may be modified by changing the hierarchical position of the stimulated animal, indicating the physiological quality of the neurological mechanisms electrically activated.

DeNapoli, J. S., Dodman, Nicholas H., Shuster, Louis, Rand, William, Gross, Kathy. (2000). Effects of dietary protein content and tryptophan supplementation on dominance aggression, territorial aggression, and hyperactivity in dogs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 217(4), 504-508.

Dodman, N. H., Donnelly, R., Shuster, L., Mertens, P., Rand, W., and Miczek, K. (1996). Use of fluoxetine to treat dominance aggression in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(9), 1585-1587.

Dodman, N. H., Moon, R., and Zelin, M. (1996). Influence of owner personality type on expression and treatment outcome of dominance aggression in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(6), 1107-1109.

    * Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the success rate of positive training methods and behavioral modification techniques in dogs with dominance aggression and to compare personality profiles between owners of dominant-aggressive and nondominant dogs. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: 10 dominant-aggressive dogs and 10 non-dominant, nonaggressive control dogs. PROCEDURE: Dominance aggression was quantified, using an aggression score, in the 10 dominant dogs before and after a nonconfrontational behavior modification program. The personality profile of the owners of dominant and control dogs, assessed by means of a Keirsey temperament sorter, was compared, as was the influence of owner personality on the outcome of behavioral modification in the dominant dogs. RESULTS: 9 of 10 dominant dogs responded to the nonconfrontational treatment program by a decrease in aggressive response to similar eliciting stimuli. Significant differences were not found between the personality of the owners of dominant versus control dogs, and owner personality did not significantly affect the outcome of behavior modification treatment. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Nonconfrontational behavior modification programs are effective in reducing owner-directed dominance aggression in dogs. Owner personality does not necessarily predispose certain individuals to assaults by dominant dogs or profoundly affect their ability to engage in a successful behavioral modification program.

Dunbar, I. F. (1975). Behavior of castrated animals. Vet Rec, 96(4), 92-93.

Dodman, N. (n/d). Medical Causes of Aggression. http://www.petplace.com/articles/artShow.asp?artID=1807

    * Introduction: Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions that may contribute to or cause canine aggression.

Edwards, D. E., and Kravitz, E.A. (1997). Serotonin, social status and aggression. Current Opinions in Neurobiology, 7, 812-819.

    * Abstract: Serotonin, social status and aggression appear to be linked in many animal species, including humans. The linkages are complex, and, for the most part, details relating the amine to the behavior remain obscure. During the past year, important advances have been made in a crustacean model system relating serotonin and aggression. The findings include the demonstration that serotonin injections will cause transient reversals in the unwillingness of subordinate animals to engage in agonistic encounters, and that at specific synaptic sites involved in activation of escape behavior, the direction of the modulation by serotonin depends on the social status of the animal.

Enquist, M. (1985). Communication during aggressive interactions with particular reference to variation in choice of behavior. Animal Behaviour, 33, 1152-1161.

Fatjó, J., & Manteca, X. (2002). Aggression Towards Unfamiliar People and Other Dogs: Diagnosis and Treatment. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002&PID=2563

Giammanco, M., Tabacchi, G., Giammanco, S., Di Majo, D., and La Guardia, M. (2005). Testosterone and aggression [Electronic Version]. Med Sci Monit, 11, 136-145. Retrieved September 10, 2005 from http://www.medscimonit.com/pub/vol_11/no_4/4259.pdf.

Golab, G. C. (1998). New task force addresses canine aggression. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 213(8), 1097, 1108.

Goldberg, M. E., & Horovitz, Z. P. (1978). Antidepressants and aggressive behavior. Mod Probl Pharmacopsychiatry, 13, 29-52.

Goodwin, D., Bradshaw, J. W. S., & Wickens, S. M. (1997). Paedomorphosis affects agonistic visual signals of domestic dogs. Animal Behaviour, 53, 297-304.

Glancy, G. D., and Knott, T.F. (2003). Part III: The psychopharmacology of long-term aggression--toward an evidence-based algorithm. CPA Bulletin, February, 13-16.

    * Abstract: This is the third in a series of three articles. Taken together, these three papers review the published literature on the psychopharmacology of aggression. The objective is to guide clinicians toward a rational choice of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of aggressive symptoms presented across the diagnostic spectrum. In the first two articles, we outlined a model for the classification of aggression, together with the method we used to search and review the literature (1,2). In this article, we focus on the use of beta blockers and antipsychotics (APs). We then come to some conclusions and attempt to use these to introduce what we believe is a useful algorithm to guide clinicians.

Guy, N. C., Luescher, A., Dohoo, S. E., Spangler, E., Miller, J. B., Dohoo, I. R., et al. (2001). A case series of biting dogs: characteristics of the dogs, their behaviour, and their victims. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 74, 43-57.

Guy, N. C., Luescher, U. A., Dohoo, S. E., Spangler, E., Miller, J. B., Dohoo, I. R., et al. (2001). Demographic and aggressive characteristics of dogs in a general veterinary caseload. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 74, 15-28.

Gruen, Margaret, Use of trazodone as an adjunctive agent in the treatment of canine anxiety disorders: 56 cases (1995-2007).  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association [0003-1488] 2008, vo:233 iss: 12 pg: 1902-7 - ABstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy of trazodone hydrochloride as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety disorders as well as treatment protocol, dose range, concurrent drug use, adverse events, and therapeutic response in dogs unresponsive to other pharmacologic agents.DESIGN: Retrospective case series.ANIMALS: 56 dogs with anxiety disorders treated at a referral veterinary behavior clinic.PROCEDURES: Medical records of dogs with anxiety disorders adjunctively treated with trazodone were retrospectively evaluated with respect to signalment, primary and secondary behavioral diagnoses, physical examination results, hematologic data (CBC and serum biochemical panel), pharmacologic management, and outcome.RESULTS: Overall, trazodone, used as an adjunctive agent in combination with other behavioral drugs, was well tolerated over a wide dose range and enhanced behavioral calming when administered on a daily or as-needed basis.CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although further controlled studies of dose range, efficacy, and safety are needed, trazodone may provide an additional therapeutic option for use in dogs that are unresponsive to conventional treatment.

         

Harper-Jaques, S., and Reimer, M. (1994). Management of Aggression and Violence. In A. J. Reiss, Miczek, K.A., and Roth, J.A. (Ed.), Understanding and Preventing olence, Volume 2: Biobehavioral Influences (pp. 802-822).

Hart, B. J., and Hart, L. A. (1997). Selecting, raising, and caring for dogs to avoid problem aggression. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 210(8), 1129-1134.

Hart, B. L., & Eckstein, R. A. (1997). The role of gonadal hormones in the occurance of objectionable behaviours in dogs and cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52, 331-344.

Higgenbottom (2013) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association April 15, 2013, Vol. 242, No. 8, Pages 1071-1073, doi: 10.2460/javma.242.8.1071,  Animal Behavior Case of the Month - use of fluoxetine for aggression, Cam Day, BVSc; Karen B. Higginbottom, PhD

Horwitz, D. F. (2001). Fears and fear aggression. Retrieved February 4, 2005, from http://www.vin.com/ACVC/2001/AuthorIndex.htm

Houpt, K. A., Honig, S. U., & Reisner, I. R. (1996). Breaking the human-companion animal bond. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 208(10), 1653-1659.

Insurance Information Institute. (2004). Dog Bite Liability. Retrieved February 3, 2005, fromhttp://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/dogbite/

    * Introduction: In 2005 dog bites cost insurers $317.2 million, little changed from $321.6 million in 2003 but down 8 percent from $345.5 million in 2002. While the number of claims paid by insurers fell from approximately 20,800 in 2002 to 15,000 in 2005 -- a decrease of 28 percent -- the cost of the average dog bite claim rose sharply, from roughly $16,600 in 2002 to $21,200 in 2005. Liability claims account for approximately 4 percent of homeowners claims. Dog bite claims in 2005 accounted for about 15 percent of liability claims dollars paid under homeowners insurance policies. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 4.7 million people are bitten by dogs annually, resulting in an estimated 800,000 injuries that require medical attention. With over 50 percent of the bites occurring on the dog owner’s property, the issue is a major source of concern for insurers. Over the years, many states have passed laws with stiff penalties for owners of dogs that cause serious injuries or deaths. In about one-third of states, owners are "strictly liable" for their dogs' behavior, while in the rest of the country they are liable only if they knew or should have known their dogs had a propensity to bite (known as the "one free bite" principle).

Jacobs, C., De Keuster, T., and Simoens, P. (2003). Assessing the pathological extent of aggressive behaviour in dogs. Vet Q., 25(2), 54-60.

    * Abstract: In this review the variety of parameters used for evaluating the pathological extent of aggressive behaviour is summarised and the practical usefulness of each parameter is discussed. The selected parameters are: the objective analytic description of the aggressive behaviour, the function of the aggression, the presence of the three phases of a normal aggression sequence, the number of bites per attack, the duration of the attack and the frequency of the aggressive behaviour. Other criteria such as the appropriateness of the aggression in relation to the context, the predictability of the aggression and the severity of the caused injury are biased because of the variation caused by numerous external factors. The relevance of the most suitable parameters will be assessed in a further study in which the distribution of aggression modulating neurotransmitter receptors will be determined.

Judge, P. G. (2000). Coping with Crowded Conditions. In F. Aureli, and de Waal, Frans B.M. (Ed.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 129-154). Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.

Katz, R. J. (1980). Role of serotonergic mechanisms in animal models of predation. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol, 4(3), 219-231.

Kenard, L. (1998). Reducing aggression and violence the serotonin connection. Retrieved September 6, 2005, from http://www.life-enhancement.com/article_print.asp?ID=208&type=

  * Introduction: obert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde has long been viewed as a dissection of the Good and Evil that can exist within a single human being. As the well-known story goes, Jekyll ingests his formula and is temporarily transformed from a conservative, well-respected English physician into a vain, uninhibited, terrifyingly violent criminal. Not only has Jekyll and Hyde stood the test of time as a morality tale, studies in brain chemistry and behavior more than a century later have shown Stevenson to have had remarkable prescience regarding the role of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Of course, Jekyll's formula was simply a fictional plot device. Other than somehow releasing some of man's baser instincts, Stevenson could have had no idea what was actually going on neurochemically. But the 100+ years of research on brain chemistry since Stevenson wrote his Victorian classic have revealed that anything that interferes with the actions of serotonin in the brain can bring about a syndrome that resembles Jekyll's transformation to Hyde. While certainly less dramatic than the transformation described by Stevenson, serotonin deficiency bears a striking resemblance in various manifestations as an increased tendency toward anxiety, depression, out-of-control disinhibition, and violence. Conversely, enhancing the activity of the serotonin system may have exactly the opposite effects in many people. Given our current knowledge of neurochemistry, there can be little doubt that if Stevenson were writing today, Jekyll's transforming formula would have been a potent anti-serotonergic agent.

Kim, H. H., Yeon, S. C., Houpt, K. A., Lee, H. C., Chang, H. H., & Lee, H. J. (2005). Effects of ovariohysterectomy on reactivity in German Shepherd dogs. The Veterinary Journal, xxx, xxx-xxx.

Kostowski, W. (1978). Effects of sedatives and major tranquilizers on aggressive behavior. Mod Probl Pharmacopsychiatry, 13, 1-12.

Kravitz, E. A. (2000). Serotonin and aggression: insights gained from a lobster model system and speculation on the role of amine neurons in complex behavior. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 186, 221-238.

    * Abstract: The amine serotonin has been suggested to play a key role in aggression in many species of animals, including man. Precisely how the amine functions, however, has remained a mystery. As with other important physiological questions, with their large uniquely identifiable neurons, invertebrate systems offer special advantages for the study of behavior. In this article we illustrate that principal with a description of our studies of the role of serotonin in aggression in a lobster model system. Aggression is a quantifiable behavior in crustaceans, the amine neuron systems believed to be important in that behavior have been completely mapped, and key physiological properties of an important subset of these netirons have been defined. These results are summarized here, including descriptions of the "gain-setter" role and "autoinhibition" shown by these neurons. Results of other investigations showing socially modulated changes in amine responsiveness at particular synaptic sites also are described. In addition, speculations are offered about how important developmental roles served by amines like serotonin, which have been well described by other investigators, may be related to the behaviors we are examining. These speculations draw heavily from the organizational/activational roles proposed for steroid hormones by Phoenix et al. (1959).

Kroll, T. L., Houpt, K.A., and Erb, H.N. (2004). The use of novel stimuli as indicators of aggressive behavior in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 40, 13-19.

    * Abstract: To test the predictive value of a doll and an artificial hand, reactions of dogs (n=100) were compared to histories of behavior toward children. Each dog's reaction to the doll and the hand was categorized as normal, fearful, fearfully aggressive, or offensively aggressive. Sixty-five percent (n=37) of the dogs that had a normal or no reaction to the stimuli had a history of being good with children. Eighty-eight percent (n=34) of the dogs that had an aggressive reaction to the doll had a history of aggressive behavior toward a child. Dogs that were fearfully aggressive were significantly more likely to show fearful responses to the doll, and dogs that were either dominant or fearfully aggressive were more likely to exhibit aggression of the same type to the hand. The results of this study indicate that the doll and, to a lesser extent, the hand may be useful components in determining the aggressive tendencies of dogs. The results also point out the major limitations, because the false positives and false negatives are too frequent.

Kulkarni, A. S., & Plotnikoff, N. P. (1978). Effects of stimulants on aggressive behavior. Mod Probl Pharmacopsychiatry, 13, 69-81.

Lindell EM. (1997) Diagnosis and treatment of destructive behavior in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 27(3): 533-47.

    * Abstract: Destructive behavior in dogs can be expensive for owners and life-threatening for dogs. The human-companion animal bond is jeopardized. A diagnostic plan should address both behavioral and medical causes of destructive behavior. Once a diagnosis has been established, a successful therapeutic plan can be formulated. Treatment includes modification of both behavior and environment and may incorporate the judicious use of psychotropic medication.

BMC Genet. 2013 May 30;14:45. doi: 10.1186/1471-2156-14-45. Characterization of a dopamine transporter polymorphism and behavior in Belgian Malinois. Lit L, Belanger JM, Boehm D, Lybarger N, Haverbeke A, Diederich C, Oberbauer AM. Source: Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA. llit@ucdavis.edu. Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Belgian Malinois dog breed (MAL) is frequently used in law enforcement and military environments. Owners have reported seizures and unpredictable behavioral changes including dogs' eyes "glazing over," dogs' lack of response to environmental stimuli, and loss of behavioral inhibition including owner-directed biting behavior. Dogs with severe behavioral changes may be euthanized as they can represent a danger to humans and other dogs. In the dog, the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) contains a 38-base pair variable number tandem repeat (DAT-VNTR); alleles have either one or two copies of the 38-base pair sequence. The objective of this study was to assess frequency of DAT-VNTR alleles, and characterize the association between DAT-VNTR alleles and behavior in MAL and other breeds.RESULTS: In an American sample of 280 dogs comprising 26 breeds, most breeds are predominantly homozygous for the DAT-VNTR two-tandem-repeat allele (2/2). The one-tandem-repeat allele is over-represented in American MAL (AM-MAL) (n = 144), both as heterozygotes (1/2) and homozygotes (1/1). All AM-MAL with reported seizures (n = 5) were 1/1 genotype. For AM-MAL with at least one "1" allele (1/1 or 1/2 genotype, n = 121), owners reported higher levels of attention, increased frequency of episodic aggression, and increased frequency of loss of responsiveness to environmental stimuli. In behavior observations, Belgian Military Working Dogs (MWD) with 1/1 or 1/2 genotypes displayed fewer distracted behaviors and more stress-related behaviors such as lower posture and increased yawning. Handlers' treatment of MWD varied with DAT-VNTR genotype as did dogs' responses to handlers' behavior. For 1/1 or 1/2 genotype MWD, 1) lower posture after the first aversive stimulus given by handlers was associated with poorer obedience performance; 2) increased aversive stimuli during protection exercises were associated with decreased performance; 3) more aversive stimuli during obedience were associated with more aversive stimuli during protection; and 4) handlers used more aversive stimuli in protection compared with obedience exercises. CONCLUSIONS:  The single copy allele of DAT-VNTR is associated with owner-reported seizures, loss of responsiveness to environmental stimuli, episodic aggression, and hyper-vigilance in MAL. Behavioral changes are associated with differential treatment by handlers. Findings should be considered preliminary until replicated in a larger sample.

Manteca, X., & Fatjó, J. (2002). Difficulties in The Diagnosis of Dominance Aggression in Dogs. Retrieved October 18, 2005, fromhttp://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002&PID=2562

Marder AR.49: (1991) Animal bites: behavior modification of the offending animal. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim). 6(3): 192-8.

Mazur, A., & Booth, A. (1998). Testosterone and Dominance in Men. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 21, 353-363. [available athttp://cogprints.org/663/00/bbs_mazur.html]

    * Abstract: In men, high levels of endogenous testosterone (T) seem to encourage behavior apparently intended to dominate -- to enhance one's status over -- other people. Sometimes dominant behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to inflict harm on another person, but often dominance is expressed nonaggressively. Sometimes dominant behavior takes the form of antisocial behavior, including rebellion against authority and law breaking. Measurement of T at a single point in time, presumably indicative of a man's basal T level, predicts many of these dominant or antisocial behaviors. T not only affects behavior but also responds to it. The act of competing for dominant status affects male T levels in two ways. First, T rises in the face of a challenge, as if it were an anticipatory response to impending competition. Second, after the competition, T rises in winners and declines in losers. Thus, there is a reciprocity between T and dominance behavior, each affecting the other. We contrast a reciprocal model, in which T level is variable, acting as both a cause and effect of behavior, with a basal model, in which T level is assumed to be a persistent trait that influences behavior. An unusual data set on Air Force veterans, in which data were collected four times over a decade, enables us to compare the basal and reciprocal models as explanations for the relationship between T and divorce. We discuss sociological implications of these models.

Miczek, K. A., Weerts, E., Haney, M., and Tidey, J. (1994). Neurobiological mechanisms controlling aggression: preclinical developments for pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 18(1), 97-110.

    * Abstract: Current pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the management of violent and aggressive behavior rely mostly on agents that act as receptor agonists or antagonists at subtypes of brain dopaminergic, GABAergic, and serotonergic receptors. Ethological experimental studies in animals have shown that drugs may modulate aggression by inhibiting motor activity, by distorting aggression-provoking or -inhibiting signals, by fragmenting behavioral sequences or temporal patterning, or by increasing the rate and intensity of aggressive acts. Evidence from animal studies points to large changes in selected brain dopamine, serotonin, and GABA systems during and following aggressive and defensive behavior. However, the specificity of drugs that are currently used to control aggressive behavior through their action as agonists or antagonists at subtypes of dopamine, serotonin or GABA receptors continues to be of concern. Similar to the effects of widely used traditional neuroleptics that nonselectively antagonize dopamine receptors, the range of behaviors which is suppressed by either D1 or D2 receptor antagonists is pervasive. At present, systemic administration of dopamine receptor antagonists in animal preparations does not target aggression-specific mechanisms. The GABAA/Benzodiazepine/Chloride ionophore receptor complex is implicated in the aggression-heightening effects of alcohol and benzodiazepines. Although early reports focused on the "taming" effects of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, low doses may enhance aggression in both animals and humans. Benzodiazepine antagonists block heightened aggression after low doses of alcohol or benzodiazepines. Agonists at certain 5-HT1 receptor subtypes such as eltoprazine are potently effective in reducing aggressive behavior of males and females of various animal species under conditions that promote charging offensive-type aggression, without adversely affecting nonaggressive components of the behavioral repertoire. However, recent reports indicate that eltoprazine and related compounds may potentiate anxiety reactions in rodents, and question the behavioral specificity of these substances. Opioid receptor antagonists modulate primarily physiological and behavioral responses of defense and submission. Defeated animals show tolerance to opiate analgesia and withdrawal responses upon challenge with opioid receptor antagonists. Defensive and submissive vocalizations are potently blocked by opioid peptides. Substances that target specific receptor subtypes at serotonergic, GABAergic and opioidergic synapses are most promising for the selective modification of aggressive, defensive and submissive behavior patterns.

Monroe, K. (2005). PWD aggression Can it happen to you? The Courier, May/June, 95-105.

Moyer, K. E. (1968). Kinds of aggression and their physiological basis. Communications in Behavioral Biology, Part A, 2, 65-87.

Moynihan, M. H. (1998). The Social Regulation of Competition and Aggression in Animals. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.

Mueller, M., M., Wilczynski, S.M., Moore, J.W., Fusilier, I., and Trahant, D. (2001). Antecedent manipulations in a tangible condition: effects of stimulus preference on aggression. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 237-240. [available athttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1284319&blobtype=pdf]

    * Abstract: After a functional analysis indicated that aggression of an 8-year-old boy with autism was maintained by access to preferred items, antecedent manipulations involving the relative preference of restricted and noncontingently available stimuli were conducted. Restricting highly preferred items evoked the highest rates of aggression regardless of the preference level of the noncontingently available alternative items. Restricting less preferred stimuli was associated with moderate rates of aggression even when the alternative items were more preferred.

Netto, W. J., va der Borg, J.A., and Slegers, J.F. (1992). The establishment of dominance relationships in a dog pack and its relevance for the man-dog relationship. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd, 117, 51S-52S.

Netto, W. J., va der Borg, J.A., & Planta, D. J. U. (1997). Behavioural testing for aggression in the domestic dog. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52, 242-263.

Noll, D. E. (1999). The neuropsychology of human conflict. Retrieved from http://www.manageconflict.com/Neuropsy.htm.

O'Farrell, V., & Peachey, E. (1990). Behavioural effects of ovariohysterectomy on bitches. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 31, 595-598.

O'Heare, J. (2007). Aggressive Behavior in Dogs. Ottawa: DogPsych Publishing.

O'Heare, J. (2004). The Canine Aggression Workbook (3nd ed.). Ottawa: DogPsych Publishing.

Overall, K. L. (2007). Why electric shock is not behavior modification. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 2, 1-4.

Overall, K. L. (2001). Aggression: triggers, flashpoints, and diagnoses. Retrieved February 4, 2005, fromhttp://www.vin.com/VINDBPub/SearchPB/Proceedings/PR05000/PR00379.htm

Overall, K. L. (2001). Pharmacology and behavior: neurochemistry of anxiety and aggression. Retrieved February 4, 2005, fromhttp://www.vin.com/ACVC/2001/AuthorIndex.htm

Overall, K. L. (2001). Aggression: treatment options. Retrieved February 4, 2005, fromhttp://www.vin.com/ACVC/2001/AuthorIndex.htm

Overall, K. (n/d). Karen Overal's Behavior Modification Program Protocol for Relaxation.http://home.gci.net/~divs/behavior/bemod_relax.html

Overall. K. L. (2003). Suggest temporary boarding first when confronted with behavioral euthanasia.http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=76364

Overall. K. L. (2004). Behavior signals interpreted with body postures.http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=94404

Overall. K. L. (2004). Are you fluent in Dog? http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=143615

Pal, S. K., Ghosh, B., & Roy, S. (1998). Agonistic behaviour of free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris) in relation to season, sex and age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 59, 331-348.

Pelios, L., Morren, J., Tesch, D., and Axelrod, S. (1999). The impact of functional analysis methodology on treatment choice for self-injurious and aggressive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 185-195. [available at:http://seab.envmed.rochester.edu/jaba/articles/1999/jaba-32-02-0185.pdf]

    * Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggression have been the concern of researchers because of the serious impact these behaviors have on individuals’ lives. Despite the plethora of research on the treatment of SIB and aggressive behavior, the reported findings have been inconsistent regarding the effectiveness of reinforcement-based versus punishment-based procedures. We conducted a literature review to determine whether a trend could be detected in researchers’ selection of reinforcement-based procedures versus punishment-based procedures, particularly since the introduction of functional analysis to behavioral assessment. The data are consistent with predictions made in the past regarding the potential impact of functional analysis methodology. Specifically, the findings indicate that, once maintaining variables for problem behavior are identified, experimenters tend to choose reinforcement-based procedures rather than punishment-based procedures as treatment for both SIB and aggressive behavior. Results indicated an increased interest in studies on the treatment of SIB and aggressive behavior, particularly since 1988.

Penturk, S., & Yalcin, E. (2003). Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med, 50(7), 339-342.

Peremans, K., Audenaert, K., Coopman, F., Blanckaert, P., Jacobs, F., Otte, A., et al. (2003). Estimates of regional cerebral blood flow and 5-HT2A receptor density in impulsive, aggressive dogs with 99mTc-ECD and 123I-5-I-R91150. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 30(11), 1538-1546.

Peremans, K., Audenaert, K., Hoybergs, Y., Otte, A., Goethals, I., Gielen, I., et al. (2005). The effect of citalopram hydrobromide on 5-HT2A receptors in the impulsive-aggressive dog, as measured with 123I-5-I-R91150 SPECT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 32(6), 708-716.

Perry, G. (n/d). Aggression in dogs: a complete review. Retrieved March 2004, from http://www.ava.com.au/UAM/proc92/15.htm

PetPlace.com. (n.d.). Tryptophan. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from http://www.petplace.com/articles/artShow.asp?artID=5187

Phillips, K. (n/d). Liability for dog bites and other looses. Retrieved February 3, 2005, fromhttp://www.dogbitelaw.com/PAGES/liability.htm

Phillips, K. (n/d). Legal rights of a dog bite victim. Retrieved February 3, 2005, from http://www.dogbitelaw.com/PAGES/legal_ri.htm

Phillips, K. (n/d). Dog Bite Law Ontario. Retrieved February 3, 2005, from http://www.dogbitelaw.com/PAGES/Ontario.htm

Planta, D. J. U., and Netto, W.J. (1999). Behavioural testing for aggression in the domestic dog. Retrieved June 30, 2005, fromhttp://wwwhome.cs.utwente.nl/~beijnum/fsk-evaluatie/Planta_proceedingslyon99.PDF

Planta, D. J. U. (2002). Testing dogs for aggressive biting behaviour and fear behaviour for breeding purposes. Retrieved fromhttp://home.wanadoo.nl/rashonden-nederland/downloads/UK_Planta.pdf

Podberscek, A. L., & Serpell, J. A. (1998). Environmental influences on the expression of aggressive behaviour in Engligh Cocker Spaniels. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52(3-4), 215-227.

Polsky, R. (2000). Can aggression in dogs be elicited through the use of electronic pet containment systems? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 3(4), 345-357.

    * Abstract: Five cases are described that involve severe attacks on humans by dogs who were being trained or maintained on an electronic pet containment system. The system is designed to boundary train a dog through the use of electric shock in an escape-avoidance conditioning paradigm. Data were collected from legal documents filed in personal injury lawsuits. Analysis of the findings show that all dogs lacked a marked history of aggressive responding, all were adult males, and most were reproductively intact. All attacks happened near the boundary of the property. In every case, the system was operational at the time of attack. Moreover, in most cases, the dog received shock. Findings lend themselves to possible interpretation in terms of unconditioned aggression as a result of a dog having received electronic shock and avoidance-motivated aggression mediated through fear reduction toward human stimuli.

Reich, M. (2001). Topics in veterinary Behavior: Canine fear aggression. http://www.southpaws.com/news/Newsletter-Spring%202001/page5.html

Reid, P. J., and Penny, N.J. (n/d). Canine aggression toward children: are simulations valid tools? Retrieved February 5, 2005, fromhttp://www.animalbehaviour.ca/research.html

Reisner, I. (1998). Canine aggression: neurobiology, behavior and management. Retrieved fromhttp://www.vetshow.com/friskies/cani.htm.

Reisner, I. R. (2003). Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in dogs. The Veterinary Clinics Small Animal Practice, 33, 303-320.

    * Abstract: Canine aggression directed to human beings is a common presenting complaint and requires attention to safety issues and behavior modification to minimize the risks of future aggression. Dogs may bite familiar people, including family members, or unfamiliar people for a variety of reasons. Anxiety plays an important role in aggression regardless of its target or circumstances. Effective management of aggression may include education and safety counseling for owners, lifestyle changes for dogs and owners, avoidance of provocations when possible, and behavior modification to minimize the risk of future bites. Drug therapy may be indicated to facilitate behavior modification or to reduce reactivity in the dog.

Reiss, A. J., Miczek, K.A., and Roth, J.A. (Ed.). (1994). Understanding and Preventing Violence, Volume 2: Biobehavioral influences (Free Executive Summary): National Academy of Sciences.

Rooney, N. J., and Bradshaw, J.W.S. (2003). Links between play and dominance and attachment dimensions of dog-human relationships. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 6(2), 67-94.

    * Abstract: It is often claimed that certain behavioral problems in domestic dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and caregiver (owner). In this study, we examine possible links between the types of games played and dimensions of the dog-owner relationship that are generally considered to affect such problems. Fifty dog-owner partnerships were filmed during 3-min play sessions in which the owner was allowed to choose the games played. All partnerships then undertook a 1-hr test designed to measure elements of behavior commonly ascribed to "dominance" and "attachment." Principal components analysis of the data produced 2 dominance-related factors (Amenability and Confident Interactivity) and 4 factors describing aspects of attachment (Nonspecific Attention Seeking, Preference for Owner, Preference for Unfamiliar Person, and Separation-Related Behavior). Amenability, in particular, varied significantly between breeds. In the study, we then compared types of games played to each of these factors. Dogs playing rough-and-tumble scored higher for Amenability and lower on Separation-Related Behavior than did dogs playing other types of games. Dogs playing tug-of-war and fetch scored high on Confident Interactivity. Winning or losing these games had no consistent effect on their test scores. If the dog started the majority of the games, the dog was significantly less amenable and more likely to exhibit aggression. The results suggest that how dogs play reflects general attributes of their temperament and relationship with their owner. This study provides no evidence that games play a major deterministic role on dominance dimensions of dog-human relationships, but the results suggest that playing games involving considerable body contact may affect attachment dimensions.

Scott, J. P. (1948). Dominance and the frustration-aggression hypothesis. Physiological Zoology, 21, 31-39.

Selby, L. A., Rhoades, J. D., Irvin, J. A., Carey, G. E., & Wade, R. G. (1980). Values and limitations of pet ownership. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 176(11), 1274-1276.

    * Abstract: A questionnaire was used to collect information concerning the values and limitations of pet ownership. The major reasons given for nonownership were housing limitations, emotional dissatisfaction with animals, destructive habits of pets, and a transient household status. Various stages of the family's "life cycle" had a role in determining pet ownership. The pet's agreeable temperament (eg, intelligence, gentleness, and playfulness) was considered to be the major advantages of pet ownership. The major negative characteristics of pet ownership were the destructiveness and overaggressiveness of the pet.

Sherman, C.K. (1996). Characteristics, treatment, and outcome of 99 cases of aggression between dogs. Applied animal behaviour science. 47(1/2): 91-108.

Shyan, M. R., Fortune, K.A., and King, C. (2003). "Bark parks"--a study on interdog aggression in limited-control environments. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 6(1), 25-32.

Simon, N. G., Kaplan, J.R., Hu, S., Register, T.C., and Adams, M.R. (2004). Increased aggressive behavior and decreased affiliative behavior in adult male monkeys after long-term consumption of diets rich in soy protein and isoflavones (abstract only). Hormones and Behavior, 45(4), 278-284.

    * Abstract: Estrogen produced by aromatization of gonadal androgen has an important facilitative role in male-typical aggressive behavior that is mediated through its interaction with estrogen receptors (ER) in the brain. Isoflavones found in soybeans and soy-based dietary supplements bind ER and have dose- and tissue-dependent effects on estrogen-mediated responses. Yet, effects of isoflavone-rich diets on social and aggressive behavior have not been studied. We studied the effects of long-term (15 months) consumption of diets rich in soy isoflavones on spontaneous social behavior among adult male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) (n = 44) living in nine stable social groups. There were three experimental conditions which differed only by the source of dietary protein: casein and lactalbumin (no isoflavones), soy protein isolate containing 0.94 mg isoflavones/g protein, and soy protein isolate containing 1.88 mg isoflavones/g protein. In the monkeys fed the higher amount of isoflavones, frequencies of intense aggressive (67% higher) and submissive (203% higher) behavior were elevated relative to monkeys fed the control diet (P's < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of time spent by these monkeys in physical contact with other monkeys was reduced by 68%, time spent in proximity to other monkeys was reduced 50%, and time spent alone was increased 30% (P's < 0.02). There were no effects of treatment on serum testosterone or estradiol concentrations or the response of plasma testosterone to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The results indicate that long-term consumption of a diet rich in soy isoflavones can have marked influences on patterns of aggressive and social behavior.

Steiner, H., Saxena, K., and Chang, K. (2003). Psychopharmacologic strategies for the treatment of aggression in juveniles. CNS Spectrums, 8(4), 298-308.

    * Abstract: Maladaptive aggression in youth is one of the most common and troublesome reasons for referrals to child psychiatrists. It has a complex relationship with psychopathology. There are several syndromes, which are primary disturbances of clustered maladaptive aggression, most notably oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. However, problems with aggression also appear in a wide range of other disturbances, such as bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and mood disorders. Additionally, aggression is normative, serves an adaptive purpose and can be situationally induced. These complexities need to be carefully addressed before targeting maladaptive aggression psychopharmacologically. We summarize the literature on the psychopharmacology of maladaptive aggression in youth, focusing on disorders without cognitive impairment. We delineate the subtypes of aggression which are most likely to respond to medication (reactive-affective-defensive-impulsive in their acute and chronic form) and conclude with a discussion of specific medication strategies which are supported by controlled clinical trials and clinical experience.

Torda, C. (1977). Compulsive aggressive or anxious behavior (postnatal preconditioning). Agressologie, 18(3), 149-160.

Tortora, D. F. (1983). Safety training: elimination of avoidance-motivated aggression in dogs. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 112(2), 176-214.

Uchida, Y., Dodman, N., DeNapoli, J., and Aronson, L. (1997). Characterization and treatment of 20 canine dominance aggression cases. J Vet Med Sci., 59(5), 397-399.

    * Abstract: This study was undertaken to characterize 20 cases of dominance aggression seen at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine and to investigate the efficacy of our non-confrontational behavior modification program for 8 weeks. The 20 cases included 18 pure breed and 2 mixed breed dogs. Thirteen of the dogs were male. The dogs' ages ranged from 7 to 84 months (mean 32.1 +/- 22.64 SE). There was no correlation between the severity of dominance aggression and the signalment of the dogs. At the conclusion of the eight week follow up period, 14 dogs (70%) were reported to have responded to the treatment to some degree. Six dogs did not demonstrate any noticeable reduction in aggressive behavior or became more aggressive. The results of the study is powerful evidence of the efficacy of the non-confrontational behavior modification program.

Ulrich, R. E., Hutchinson, R.R., and Azrin, N.H. (1965). Pain-elicited aggression. The Psychological Record, 15, 111-126. [available at http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1338713&blobtype=pdf]

* Abstract: Painful mechanical tail-pinch elicited aggressive responses in paired rats; response-contingent electric shock to either forepaws or hindpaws suppressed fighting and stereotyped aggressive postures, including those in which dominance was expressed. There was no evidence that aggression was facilitated by shock that was contingent on pain-elicited aggressive responses. Aggressive responding recovered when shock was discontinued.

Unshelm, A. R. J. (1997). Aggressive conflicts amongst dogs and factors affecting them. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52, 229-242.

van den Berg, L. S., M. B. H., and Knol, B. W. (2003). Behavior genetics of canine aggression: behavioral phenotyping of golden retrievers by means of aggression test. Behavior Genetics, 33(5), 469-483.

    * Abstrct: Molecular genetic analysis of complex traits such as aggression strongly depends on careful phenotyping of individuals. When studying canine aggression, the information provided by the owners of the dogs is often not detailed and reliable enough for this purpose. Therefore we subjected 83 golden retrievers, both aggressive and nonaggressive individuals, to a behavioral test. These tests were analyzed with help of an ethogram, resulting in a behavioral profile for each of the dogs. In this article three methods are described of converting these profiles into a measure of behavioral phenotype. The usefulness of the methods is evaluated by comparing the test results with information provided by owners. Moreover, the hypothesis underlying all these methods, that a lowered threshold for aggressive behavior in general is present in the dogs, is also evaluated. Future research will need to reveal whether the methods meet the high standards that are necessary for studying complex traits.

van Kerkhove, W. (2004). A fresh look at the wolf-pack theory of companion-animal dog social behavior. J Appl Anim Welf Sci, 7(4), 279-285; discussion 299-300.

Vas, J., Topal, J., Gacsi, M., Miklosi, A. P., R., and Csonji, T. V., & Csanyi, V. (2005). A friend or an enemy? Dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar person showing behavioural cues of threat and friendliness at different times. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 94, 99-115.

Vasb, J., Topála, J., Gácsia, M., Miklósia, A., and Csányi, V. (2005). A friend or an enemy? Dogs’ reaction to an unfamiliar person showing behavioural cues of threat and friendliness at different times. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 94(1-2), 99-115.

Virga, V., Houpt, K. A., and Scarlett, J. M. (2001). Efficacy of amitriptyline as a pahrmacological adjunct to behavioral modification in the management of aggressive behaviors in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 37, 325-330.

Voith VL, Borchelt PL. (1982). Diagnosis and treatment of dominance aggression in dogs.Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 12(4): 655-63.

Voith, V. L. (1981). Profile of 100 animal behavior cases. Mod Vet Pract, 62(6), 483-484.

Voith, V. L. (1980). Play behavior interpreted as aggression or hyperactivity: case histories. Mod Vet Pract, 61(8), 707-709.

Voith, V. L. (1979). Multiple approaches to treating behavior problems. Mod Vet Pract, 60(8), 651-654.

White, M. M., Neilson, J. C., Hart, B. L., and Cliff, K. D. (1999). Effects of clomipramine hydrochloride on dominance-related aggression in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 215(9), 1288-1291.

    * Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of the serotonergic drug clomipramine hydrochloride with those of placebo for treatment of dominance-related aggression in dogs. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. ANIMALS: 28 neutered dogs > 1 year old with dominance-related aggression. PROCEDURE: Dogs displaying > or 3 aggressive episodes/wk toward > or 1 human family member in response to identifiable behavioral triggers were included in the study. Owners were instructed not to change patterns of interaction with their dogs during the study. After 2 weeks of baseline observations, dogs were treated for 6 weeks with clomipramine (1.5 mg/kg [0.7 mg/lb] of body weight, q 12 h; n = 15) or placebo (13). Responses to triggers were assigned the following aggression scores: no response, 0; growl or lip curl, 1; snap or bite, 2. Mean scores for responses to triggers were obtained during the 2-week pretreatment period (baseline) and during the first and second weeks, third and fourth weeks, and fifth and sixth weeks of treatment. At the end of the study, owners assigned a score designed to evaluate their overall perceived change in aggressiveness; this was referred to as the global score. RESULTS: Mean aggression scores decreased at the fifth and sixth week of treatment in both groups, compared with baseline scores. However, mean scores between groups were not different. Global scores, assigned by the owner, generally reflected changes in mean aggression scores. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Compared with placebo, clomipramine administered to dogs at the dosage recommended for treatment of separation anxiety did not reduce aggressiveness toward human family members.

Williams, N. G., and Borchelt, P.L. (2003). Full body restraint and rapid stimulus exposure as a treatment for dogs with defensive aggressive behavior: three case studies. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 16, 226-236.

Yen, D.H. (1998). Learned Helplessness. http://www.noogenesis.com/malama/discouragement/helplessness.html

    * Introductory paragraph: In early 1965, Martin E. P. Seligman and his collegues, while studying the relationship between fear and learning, accidentally discovered an unexpected phenomenon while doing experiments on dogs using Pavlovian (classical conditioning). As you may observe in yourselves or a dog, when you are presented with food, you have a tendency to salivate. Pavlov discovered that if a ringing bell or tone is repeatedly paired with this presentation of food, the dog salivates. Later, all you have to do is ring the bell and the dog salivates. However, in Seligman's experiment, instead of pairing the tone with food, he paired it with a harmless shock, restraining the dog in a hammock during the learning phase. The idea, then, was that after the dog learned this, the dog would feel fear on the presentation of a tone, and would then run away or do some other behavior.

Young MS. (1982). Treatment of fear-induced aggression in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 12 (4): 645-53.

 

 

 

 

Thunder & Noise Phobia

Treatment was successful in 30 of 32 cases. 2003 Mar 15;222(6):744-8. Use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs.Crowe l-Davis SL, Seibert LM, Sung W, Parthasarathy V, Curtis TM.

 

Dodman, N. Thunderstorm phobia in dogs: an Internet survey of 69 cases,

Mccobb, E C ; Brown, E A ; Damiani, K ; Dodman, N H, Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 2001, Vol.37(4), pp.319-24 - Abstract

To learn more about predispositions for, signs, and progression of canine thunderstorm phobia, a survey for owners was posted on the Internet. Questions addressed signalment, age of onset, behavior during storms, and treatments tried. Sixty-nine responses were received. Herding dogs and herding crossbreeds accounted for the majority of dogs. Seventeen of 41 dogs with a known age of onset began exhibiting thunderstorm phobia <1 year of age. Various characteristic responses of dogs to storms were described. Improved knowledge of the demographics of thunderstorm phobia, its development, and presentation will assist in understanding the genesis and progression of the condition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Separation Anxiety in Dogs (often occurs with noise phobia)

 

Appleby, D., & Pluijmakers, J. (2004). Separation anxiety in dogs: The function of homeostasis in its development and treatment. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 19(4), 205-215.

Beata, C. (2006). Anxiety versus fears versus phobias in adult dogs. Paper presented at the The North American Veterinary Conference - 2006.

Borchelt, P. L., & Voith, V. L. (1982). Diagnosis and treatment of separation-related behavior problems in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 12(4), 625-635.

Burnum, J. F. (2000). The pet separation syndrome. Ann Intern Med, 133(4), 313-314.

Butchers, A. D. (2001). Assessing the efficacy of prescribing tricyclic antidepressants in conjunction with modifying behaviour therapy for the treatment of separation anxiety in dogs. Retrieved August 8, 2005, from http://vein.library.usyd.edu.au/links?Essays/2001/butchers.html

Cairns, R. B. (1966). Attachment behavior of mammals. Psychol Rev, 73(5), 409-426.

Cairns, R. B., & Werboff, J. (1967). Behavior development in the dog: an interspecific analysis. Science, 158(804), 1070-1072.

Casey, R. A. (1998). Use of clomipramine for separation anxiety in dogs. Vet Rec, 142(21), 587-588.

Davison, G. C. (1968). Systematic desensitization as a counter-conditioning process. J Abnorm Psychol, 73(2), 91-99.

Denenberg, V. H. (1964). Critical Periods, Stimulus Input, and Emotional Reactivity: a Theory of Infantile Stimulation. Psychol Rev, 71, 335-351.

Denenberg, V. H., & Morton, J. R. C. (1962). Effects of environmental complexity and social groupings upon modification of emotional behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55(2), 242-246.

Eisenberger, N. I., Jarcho, J. M., Lieberman, M. D., & Naliboff, B. D. (2006). An experimental study of shared sensitivity to physical pain and social rejection. Pain, 126(1-3), 132-138.

Elliot, O., & Scott, J. P. (1961). The development of emotional distress reactions to separation, in puppies. J Genet Psychol, 99, 3-22.

Flannigan, G., & Dodman, N. H. (2001). Risk factors and behaviors associated with separation anxiety in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 219(4), 460-466.

    * Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine potential risk factors and behaviors associated with separation anxiety and develop a practical index to help in the diagnosis of separation anxiety in dogs. DESIGN: Case-control study. ANIMALS: 200 dogs with separation anxiety and 200 control dogs with other behavior problems. PROCEDURES: Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history of behavior problems, home environment, management, potentially associated behaviors, and concurrent problems. RESULTS: Dogs from a home with a single adult human were approximately 2.5 times as likely to have separation anxiety as dogs from multiple owner homes, and sexually intact dogs were a third as likely to have separation anxiety as neutered dogs. Several factors associated with hyperattachment to the owner were significantly associated with separation anxiety. Spoiling activities, sex of the dog, and the presence of other pets in the home were not associated with separation anxiety. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results do not support the theory that early separation from the dam leads to future development of separation anxiety. Hyperattachment to the owner was significantly associated with separation anxiety; extreme following of the owner, departure cue anxiety, and excessive greeting may help clinicians distinguish between canine separation anxiety and other separation-related problems.

Gacsi, M., Topal, J., Miklosi, A., Doka, A., & Csanyi, V. (2001). Attachment behavior of adult dogs (Canis familiaris) living at rescue centers: forming new bonds. J Comp Psychol, 115(4), 423-431.

Gaultier, E., Bonnafous, L., Bougrat, L., Lafont, C., & Pageat, P. (2005). Comparison of the efficacy of a synthetic dog-appeasing pheromone with clomipramine for the treatment of separation-related disorders in dogs. Vet Rec, 156(17), 533-538.

    * Abstract: Sixty-seven dogs that showed signs of distress when separated from their owners (destructiveness, excessive vocalisation and house soiling) and hyperattachment were used in a randomised, blind trial to assess the potential value of a dog-appeasing pheromone in reducing the unacceptable behaviours. For ethical reasons, there was no placebo group and the effects of the pheromone were compared with the effects of clomipramine which is regularly used to treat this type of problem. The undesirable behaviours decreased in both groups, but the overall assessment by the owners indicated that there was no significant difference between the two treatments, although there were fewer undesirable events in the dogs treated with the pheromone, and the administration of the pheromone appeared to be more convenient.

Gewirtz, J. L. (1972). Attachment, dependence, and a distinction in terms of stimulus control. In (pp. 139-177). Washington: V. H. Winston & Sons.

Gewirtz, J. L. (1960s). A learning analysis of the effects of normal stimulation, privation and deprivation on the acquisition of social motivation and attachment. In (pp. 213-303). London: Methuen.

Gazzano, A., Mariti, C., Notari, L., Sighiere, C., & McBride, E. A. (2007). Effects od early gentling and early environment on emotional development of puppies. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, xxx(xxx), xxx-xxx. in press.

Hewson, C. J. (2000). Clomipramine and behavioural therapy in the treatment of separation-related problems in dogs. Vet Rec, 146(4), 111-112.

Hewson, C. J., Luescher, U. A., & Ball, R. O. (1999). The use of chance-crrected agreement to diagnose canine compulsive disorder: An approach to behavioral disgnosis in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Can J Vet Res, 63, 201-206.

Horwitz, D. F. (2000). Diagnosis and treatment of canine separation anxiety and the use of clomipramine hydrochloride (clomicalm). Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 36(2), 107-109.

Horwitz, D. F. (2001). Separation anxiety in dogs. Retrieved February 4, 2005, from http://www.vin.com/ACVC/2001/AuthorIndex.htm

    * Introductory paragraph: Because domestic dogs usually consider the human family to be their social group, they become bonded to family members. When separated from family members dogs may experience distress and engage in problem behaviors related to the anxiety of separation. These behaviors include destruction, vocalization, elimination of urine and/or stool, anorexia, drooling, attempts at escape and/or behavioral depression. Treatment protocols include independence training, habituation, counter-conditioning and desensitization to owner departure and absence.

King, J. N., Simpson, B. S., Overall, K. L., Appleby, D., Pageat, P., Ross, C., Chaurand, J. P., Heath, S., Beata, C., Weiss, A. B., Muller, G., Paris, T., Bataille, B. G., Parker, J., Petit, S., and Wren, J. (2000). Treatment of separation anxiety in dogs with clomipramine: results from a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter clinical trial. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 67(4), 255-275.

    * Abstract: The efficacy and tolerability of clomipramine in the treatment of separation anxiety in dogs was tested in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, international multicenter clinical trial. For a diagnosis of separation anxiety, dogs had to exhibit at least one of the following signs in the absence of their owner: destruction, defecation, urination and/or vocalization, as well as the behaviour suggestive of "hyper-attachment" to their owner. A total of 95 dogs were randomized to receive one of the three treatments for 2-3 months: "standard-dose" clomipramine (1 to <2 mg/kg, PO, q. 12 h); "low-dose" clomipramine (0.5 to <1 mg/kg, PO, q. 12 h); and placebo (PO, q. 12 h). All dogs received behavioural therapy. Dogs were examined at four time points (days 0, 28, 56 and 84) after the initiation of therapy. Improvement in each dog's behaviour at days 28, 56 and 84 was evaluated in comparison to its behaviour at day 0.The results showed that, compared to placebo, dogs receiving standard-dose clomipramine were rated improved at least three times faster for the signs destruction, defecation and urination. At most time points, more dogs in the standard-dose clomipramine group were rated improved for the signs destruction, defecation and urination, and in an owner's global assessment of the dog's overall behaviour (p<0.05 at certain time points). However, there were no statistically significant differences at any time point between the standard dose and the placebo groups in the sign vocalization. The low-dose clomipramine group produced no statistically significant effect when compared with placebo. Mild and transient vomiting was noted as a side effect of clomipramine in a small number of dogs.It is concluded that addition of standard-dose (1 to <2 mg/kg, PO, q. 12 h) clomipramine to conventional behavioural therapy for 2-3 months ameliorated the signs of separation anxiety in dogs.

King, J. N. (2000). Pharmacological management of separation anxiety. In: Recent Advances in Companion Animal Behavior Problems, Houpt K.A. (Ed.)

International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY, 2000. Retrieved February 4, 2005, from [available athttp://www.ivis.org/advances/Behavior_Houpt/king/ivis.pdf]

    * Summary: The treatment of separation anxiety in dogs involves the combination of behaviour modification therapy, envienvironmental management and pharmacotherapy. Tricyclic antidepressants with strong serotonin-reuptake inhibiting properties appear to be the first choice for drug therapy, with additional administration of benzodiazepines in severe cases. With proper management, cases of separation anxiety carry a good prognosis.

Landsberg, G. M. (2001). Clomipramine--beyond separation anxiety. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, 37(4), 313-318.

Lem, M. (2002). Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 43, 220-222. [available at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=339210&blobtype=pdf]

    * Abstract: Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

Lund, J. D., & Jorgensen, M. C. (1999). Behaviour patterns and time course of activity in dogs with separation problems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 63(3), 219-236.

McCrave, E. A. (1991). Diagnostic criteria for separation anxiety in dogs. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 21(2), 247-255.

McGreevy, P. D., & Masters, A. M. (2007). Risk factors for separation-related distress and feed-releated aggression in dogs: Additional findings from a survey of Australian dog owners. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 

McMillan, F. D. (2001). More thoughts on separation anxiety. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 219(12), 1674-1675.

Newberry, R. C., & Swanson, J. C. (2007). Implications of breaking mother-young social bonds. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, xxx(xxx), xxx-xxx. in press.

O'Heare, J. (2003). The Canine Separation Anxiety Workbook (4th ed.). Ottawa: Dogpsych Publishing.

Overall, K. L. (2001). Screen for separation anxiety and noise phobias in dogs. Retrieved February 4, 2005, fromhttp://www.vin.com/ACVC/2001/AuthorIndex.htm

    * Introduction: The first set of these questions deals with an "actual absence" - e.g., the client actually leaves the house and the dog is either alone or totally without the client. The second set deals with "virtual absence" - e.g., the client is home, but not accessible because the door is closed or the dog is barricaded in another room. The questions are the same for each but please answer both.

Overall, K. L., & Dunham, A. E. (2001). Disagrees with alternative view of separation anxiety. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 219(11), 1520, 1522.

Overall, K. L. (1998). Animal behavior case of the month. Stereotypical motor behavior that manifested when the owner departed or was out of the dog's sight. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 213(1), 34-36.

Overall, K. (n/d). Karen Overal's Behavior Modification Program Protocol for Relaxation.http://home.gci.net/~divs/behavior/bemod_relax.html

Overall. K. L. (2003). Separation anxiety: Not all dogs crated or kenneled successfully.http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=62241

Overall. K. L. (2003). Treating anxiety is different than 'managing' the problem.http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=43492

Overall. K. L. (2003). Separation anxiety: Early drug intervention can be beneficial.http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=58642

Overall, K. L., Hamilton, S. P., & Chang, M. L. (2006). Understanding the genetic basis of canine anxiety: Phenotyping dogs for behavioral, neurochemical, and genetic assessment. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 1, 124-141.

Panksepp, J., Herman, B., Conner, R., Bishop, P., & Scott, J. P. (1978). The biology of social attachments: opiates alleviate separation distress. Biol Psychiatry, 13(5), 607-618.

    * Abstract: The possibility that brain opiate systems participate in the control of social affect was assessed by determining capacity of low doses of exogenous opiates (0.125-0.50 mg/kg oxymorphone, and 0.10-0.50 mg/kg morphine sulfate) to reduce distress vocalizations of socially isolated puppies. Low doses of opiates were capable of profoundly reducing crying as well as the motor agitation they exhibit during brief periods of social isolation. Since reductions in crying could be obtained with morphine in the absence of any gross behavioral disturbances, the possibility is entertained that brain opiates may function to control the intensity of emotions arising from social separation. Possible parallels between the biological nature of narcotic addiction and the formation of social bonds are discussed.

Papurt, M. L. (2001). An alternative look at separation anxiety. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 219(7), 910.

Pettijohn, T. F., Wong, T. W., Ebert, & Scott, J. P. (1977). Alleviation of separation distress in 3 breeds of young dogs. Developmental Psychobiology, 10(4), 373-381.

    * Abstract: Twenty-four puppies (8 each of Shetland sheepdogs, Telomians, and beagles) served as subjects in this experiment which was designed to examine the effectiveness of 12 stimulus conditions (food, toys, canine contact, and human contact) on alleviation of separation-induced distress vocalization. Testing consisted of a prestimulus trial, stimulus trial, and post-stimulus trial each session 3 times a week from 4 to 8 weeks after birth. Overall results showed human contact to be the most effective, followed by canine contact, toys, and food. Breed differences were significant in only 2 of the stimulus conditions. In the typical case of effective treatment, the vocalization rate declined from the prestimulus trial to a low point in the stimulus trial and then increased again in the post-stimulus trial.

Podberscek, A. L., Hsu, Y., Serpell, J. A. (1999). Evaluation of clomipramine as an adjunct to behavioural therapy in the treatment of separation-related problems in dogs. The Veterinary Record, 145(13), 365-369.

    * Abstract: Forty-nine dogs showing signs of separation-related problems were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group A (15 dogs) received a placebo twice daily; group B (17 dogs) received clomipramine at 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg twice daily; and group C (17 dogs) received clomipramine at 1.0 to 2.0 mg/kg twice daily. All the dogs also received behavioural therapy. Their owners were required to complete questionnaires about their dog's behaviour initially, and one, four and eight weeks after the treatment with clomipramine began. Bipolar ratings scales were used to monitor the frequencies of 'general', 'attachment-related' and 'separation-related' behaviours. Kruskal-Wallis tests and Kendall Rank correlations were used to determine any initial differences between the treatment groups, and the association between the initial scores and behavioural changes after one week of treatment with clomipramine. Extended Mantel-Haenszel statistics were used to evaluate the effects of clomipramine treatment versus the placebo, and Page's test was used to assess the effectiveness of behavioural therapy on its own. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the owners of the dogs assigned to the three groups. The dogs differed slightly in age between groups, and the dogs in the two clomipramine-treated groups were reported as showing problems at a significantly earlier age than those in the placebo group. Clomipramine treatment had a sustained suppressive effect on the dogs' general activity levels, and a more modest suppressive effect on their attachment-related tendency to want much physical contact with their owners. The typical signs of separation-related behaviour problems were not significantly affected by treatment with clomipramine, but behavioural therapy on its own was highly effective in reducing behavioural problems.

Roen, D. T. (2000). Thoughts on separation anxiety in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 217(6), 818.

Schroll, S., Dehasse, J., Palme, R., Sommerfeld-Stur, I., & Löwenstein, G. (n/d). The use of DAP collar to reduce stress during training of police dogs A preliminary study. Retrieved June 4, 2006, from http://www.vet-magazin.com/.../DAP-collar.html

Schwartz, S. (2003). Separation anxiety syndrome in dogs and cats. JAVMA, 222(11), 1526-1532.

Seksel, K., and Lindeman, M. J. (2001). Use of clomipramine in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation anxiety and noise phobia in dogs: a preliminary, clinical study. Autralian Veterinary Journal, 79(4), 252-256.

    * Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a treatment protocol for obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation anxiety and noise phobia in dogs. DESIGN: A study was undertaken to assess clinical responses in 24 dogs diagnosed with one or more of three behavioural disorders stated above to a treatment regimen that included clomipramine and behaviour modification. PROCEDURE: A detailed behavioural and clinical history was obtained for each dog. Obsessive-compulsive disorder was diagnosed in nine cases: primary presenting complaints were tail-chasing, shadow-chasing, circling and chewing; one case was diagnosed with concurrent separation anxiety. Separation anxiety was diagnosed in 14 cases: presenting complaints included destruction, vocalisation and escaping in the absence of the owner; four cases also exhibited noise phobia. The study also included one dog diagnosed with noise phobia only and another with inappropriate fear responses. Clomipramine was administered orally twice daily. The starting dose was 1 to 2 mg/kg bodyweight. The dose was increased incrementally to a maximum of 4 mg/kg if needed. A behaviour modification program was designed and the owner instructed on its implementation. Dogs continued medication for at least 1 month after clinical signs disappeared or were acceptably reduced, then withdrawal of medication was attempted by decreasing drug dosage at weekly intervals while behaviour modification continued. RESULTS: The presenting clinical sign was largely improved or disappeared in 16 dogs, 5 demonstrated slight to moderate improvement and the behaviour was unchanged in 3. Clomipramine withdrawal was attempted in nine cases: this was successful in five. CONCLUSION: Clomipramine was effective and well-tolerated in controlling signs of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or separation anxiety and/or noise phobia in 16 of 24 assessable cases, when used in combination with behaviour modification, and improvement in clinical signs was noted in 5 others.

Shore, E. R., Douglas, D. K., & Riley, M. L. (2005). What's in it for the companion animal? Pet attachment and college students' behaviors toward pets. J Appl Anim Welf Sci, 8(1), 1-11.

Slabbert, J. M., & Rasa, O. A. (1993). The effect of early separation from the mother on pups in bonding to humans and pup health. J S Afr Vet Assoc, 64(1), 4-8.

Takeuchi, Y., Houpt, K. A., & Scarlett, J. M. (2000). Evaluation of treatments for separation anxiety in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 217(3), 342-345.

    * Abstract: Objective—To evaluate treatment outcome in dogs with separation anxiety and owner compliance with and perception of effectiveness of discharge instructions. Design—Cohort study. Animals—52 dogs with separation anxiety. Procedure—Sex, age at which the owner obtained the dog, age at which separation anxiety was first noticed, age at behavioral examination, and discharge instructions were obtained from medical records of each dog. Between 6 and 64 months after the behavioral examination, owners were contacted by telephone and questioned about the outcome of treatment, their compliance with discharge instructions, and their perception of the effectiveness of each instruction. Results—Thirty-two (62%) dogs had improved, whereas 20 were the same, were worse, or had been euthanatized or given away. Mixed-breed dogs were significantly less likely to improve than purebred dogs. Compliance varied according to discharge instruction. Significantly fewer dogs with owners that were given > 5 instructions improved or were cured, compared with those with owners given fewer instructions. Twenty-seven dogs were also treated with amitriptyline or other medication; 15 (56%) improved. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Owners complied with instructions that involved little time such as omitting punishment and providing a chew toy at the time of departure. Owners were also willing to increase the dog's exercise but were not willing to uncouple the cues of departure from real departures or desensitize the dog to impending departure. Administration of psychoactive medication may be necessary to augment behavior modification techniques designed to reduce separation anxiety in dogs

Topal, J., Miklosi, A., Csanyi, V., & Doka, A. (1998). Attachment behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris): a new application of Ainsworth's (1969) Strange Situation Test. J Comp Psychol, 112(3), 219-229.

    * Abstract: Fifty-one owner-dog pairs were observed in a modified version of M. D. S. Ainsworth's (1969) Strange Situation Test. The results demonstrate that adult dogs (Canis familiaris) show patterns of attachment behavior toward the owner. Although there was considerable variability in dogs' attachment behavior to humans, the authors did not find any effect of gender, age, living conditions, or breed on most of the behavioral variables. The human-dog relationship was described by means of a factor analysis in a 3-dimensional factor space: Anxiety, Acceptance, and Attachment. A cluster analysis revealed 5 substantially different classes of dogs, and dogs could be categorized along the secure-insecure attached dimensions of Ainsworth's original test. A dog's relationship to humans is analogous to child-parent and chimpanzee-human attachment behavior because the observed behavioral phenomena and the classification are similar to those described in mother-infant interactions.

Tuber, D. S., Sanders, S., Hennessy, M. B., & Miller, J. A. (1996). Behavioral and glucocorticoid responses of adult domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to companionship and social separation. J Comp Psychol, 110(1), 103-108.


Dog Stress

? (n/d). General Adaptation Syndrome [Electronic Version]. Retrieved September 2, 2005 fromhttp://library.thinkquest.org/C0123421/gas.htm.

Ahrens, F., Knies, K., Schneider, M., Kohler, F., & Erhard, M. H. (2005). Influence of different training and outdoor conditions on plasma histamine and cortisol concentrations in search-and-rescue dogs. Inflamm Res, 54 Suppl 1, S34-35.

al'Absi, M., Hugdahl, K., & Lovallo, W. R. (2002). Adrenocortical stress responses and altered working memory performance. Psychophysiology, 39(1), 95-99.

Beata, C. (2006). Anxiety versus fears versus phobias in adult dogs. Paper presented at the The North American Veterinary Conference - 2006.

Beera, B., Schilder, M.B.H., van Hoof, J.A.R.A.M., and de Vries, H.W. (1997). Manifestations of chronic and acute stress in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52, 307-319.

    * Abstract: Poor housing conditions, harsh training sessions and uncontrollable or unpredictable social environments are examples of the situations that may lead to reduced welfare status in dogs. Individuals that suffer from poor welfare presumably experience stress and may consequently exhibit stress responses. In order to evaluate stress responses as potential indicators of poor welfare in dogs, we review studies dealing with dogs subjected to stressors. The reported stress responses are categorized as being behavioural, physiological or immunological, and demonstrate the various ways stress is manifested in the dog. Stressors such as noise, immobilization, training, novelty, transport or restricted housing conditions have been reported to elicit responses in behavioural, cardiovascular, endocrine, renal, gastro-intestinal, and haematological parameters. These and other parameters that change during stress may thus be indicative of poor welfare. However, several sources of misinterpretation have to be considered before stress responses may be used as valid indicators of welfare. Although analogous to the human situation, especially chronic stress may impair welfare, most studies deal with acute stress and do not address chronic stress and related phenomena. Adaptation may counteract the initial stress response and render parameters of acute stress useless for assessing chronic stress. Adaptations to stress are thus in themselves indicative of reduced welfare. Such adaptations may be discovered by challenging a stress responsive system. Additional studies are recommended to investigate acute stress parameters as possible indicators of chronic stress. Differences in stressor properties and in individual characteristics of dogs introduce variability in stress responses. Such variability will complicate a valid interpretation of stress responses with regard to welfare. Obtaining and applying fundamental knowledge of stress responses in dogs and measuring more than one stress parameter are proposed to minimize the risk of misinterpreting measurements of stress.

Beerda, B., Schilder, M. B. H., Van Hoof, J. A. R. A. M., De Vries, H., and Mol, J. A. (1999). Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. I. Behavioral responses. Physiology & Behavior, 66(2), 233-242.

    * Abstract: Six weeks of social and spatial restriction were used as a model to induce chronic stress in Beagles. Behavioral and physiological measurements were performed during a period of enriched spacious outdoor housing in groups (GH) and during a subsequent period of solitary housing in small indoor kennels (IH). Behavioral parameters that may indicate chronic stress in dogs are reported. During IH, the dogs showed significantly (comparison-wise error rate <0.05) lower postures than during GH. IH induced enduring increments in frequencies of autogrooming, paw lifting, and vocalizing, and was associated with incidents of coprophagy and repetitive behavior. So far, we interpret the behavioral changes as signs of chronic stress. Relatively low levels of walking, digging, intentions to change from one state of locomotion to another, and increments in circling are conceived as obvious adaptations to the specific features of the IH system. By challenging the dogs outside their home kennel we tested whether the dogs' coping abilities were affected by IH. Dogs that were challenged were introduced into a novel environment, given the opportunity to escape from their home kennel, restrained, walked down an unfamiliar corridor, presented a novel object, exposed to loud noise, given food, or confronted with a conspecific. During IH, challenged dogs exhibited higher postures, showed more tail wagging, nosing, circling, urinating, and defecating, and changed more often from one state of locomotion (or posture) to another than during GH. These behavioral changes were observed across the different types of challenges, with the exception of the noise administration test. In the presence of conspecifics, the socially and spatially restricted male dogs behaved more dominantly and aggressive than during the time that they were kept in groups. Such behavior manifested as increased performances of raised hairs, growling, paw laying, and standing over. Both sexes showed increases in paw lifting, body shaking, ambivalent postures, intentions to change from one state of locomotion to another, and trembling in any of the challenges, excluding the walking down the corridor test. In short, during a variety of challenges, socially and spatially restricted dogs exhibited a heightened state of aggression, excitement, and uncertainty. Behavioral differences between dogs that had experienced pleasant and bad weather conditions during GH, suggested that "pleasant-weather individuals" had experienced early stress during the control period, and, as a result, responded to the subsequent period of IH differently. Regardless of the housing conditions, challenged bitches showed stronger indications of acute stress than male dogs. Gender did not affect the chronic stress responses to social and spatial restriction. A low posture and increased auto-grooming, paw lifting, vocalizing, repetitive behavior, and coprophagy may indicate chronic stress in dogs, and as such, can help to identify poor welfare. When challenged, chronically stressed dogs may show increased excitement, aggression, and uncertainty, but the nonspecificity of such emotional behavior will complicate its practical use with regard to the assessment of stress.

Blackshaw, J. (2000). Chronic stress in housed dogs. Retrieved August 8, 2005, fromhttp://vein.library.usyd.edu.au/links/Essays/2000blackshaw.html

    * Introduction: Housing of production animals has long been considered an animal welfare issue. In the United Kingdom the concept of the 'Five Freedoms' has raised the standard of animal welfare for production animals. Has the time come to apply the same framework to companion animals?

Boxall, J., Heath, S., Bate, S., & Brautigam, J. (2004). Modern concepts of socialisation for dogs: implications for their behaviour, welfare and use in scientific procedures. Altern Lab Anim, 32 Suppl 2, 81-93.

Brown, J. D. (1991). Staying fit and staying well: Physical fitness as a moderator of life stress. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 555-561.

    * Abstract: Previous research suggests that physical fitness moderates the adverse effects of stressful life events. However, a reliance on self-reports of fitness and health may limit the validity of prior investigations. The present research tested the stress-buffering effect of fitness with subjective and objective indicators of exercise, fitness, and physical well-being. For self-reports of health, both self-reports of exercise and objective measures of fitness showed the buffering effect; however, only objective fitness levels buffered stress when visits to a health facility were considered. Additional evidence indicated that this effect was largely independent of measures of psychological distress. Implications for understanding the link between fitness, stress, and health status are discussed.

Clark, J. D., rager, D.R., Crowell-Davis, S., and Evans, D.L. (1997). Housing and exercise of dogs: Effects on behavior, immune function, and cortisol concentration. Laboratory Animal Science, 47(5), 500-510.

Cook, C. J. (2002). Glucocorticoid feedback increases the sensitivity of the limbic system to stress. Physiol Behav, 75(4), 455-464.

Dreschel, N. A., & Granger, D. A. (2005). Physiological and behavioral reactivity to stress in thunderstorm-phobic dogs and their caregivers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science.

Drugan, R. C., Basile, A. S., Ha, J. H., Healy, D., & Ferland, R. J. (1997). Analysis of the importance of controllable versus uncontrollable stress on subsequent behavioral and physiological functioning. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc, 2(1), 69-74.

Eisenberger, N. I., Jarcho, J. M., Lieberman, M. D., & Naliboff, B. D. (2006). An experimental study of shared sensitivity to physical pain and social rejection. Pain, 126(1-3), 132-138.

Garnier, F., Benoit, E., Virat, M., Ochoa, R., and Delatour, P. (1990). Adrenal cortical response in clinically normal dogs before and after adaptation to a housing environment. Laboratory Animals, 24, 40-43.

    * Abstract: 58 dogs (29 males and 29 females) selected as healthy on clinical and biochemical evaluations were subjected to an ACTH adrenal function test 2 days after their admission to a veterinary hospital (t + 0). Basal female serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than concentrations in males (77 nmol/l versus 43 nmol/l; P less than 0.01). Concentrations post stimulation were not statistically different (P greater than 0.05) between males and females: 306 (+/- 69) nmol/l versus 291 (+/- 73) nmol/l, respectively. Twelve dogs (6 males and 6 females), randomly selected from the 58, were subjected to the same test 5 weeks later (t + 5) and 12 weeks later (t + 12). Basal cortisol concentrations were lower at t + 5 or at t + 12 than at t + 0. Post stimulation mean cortisol concentrations were lower in males than in females at t + 5 (162 versus 232 nmol/l; P less than 0.05) but not at t + 0 (262 versus 320 nmol/l; P greater than 0.05) and t + 12 (188 versus 233 nmol/l; P greater than 0.05). These findings are indicating an increased susceptibility of bitches to environmental stress.

Hennessy, M. B., Davis, H. N., Williams, M. T., Mellott, C., & Douglas, C. W. (1997). Plasma cortisol levels of dogs at a county animal shelter. Physiol Behav, 62(3), 485-490.

    * Abstract: Plasmacortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had higher cortisol levels than did a group maintained in the shelter for more than 9 days. Dogs in the shelter for an intermediate period (Day 4-9) had intermediate levels of cortisol. The cortisol concentrations of dogs during their first day in the shelter were greater than either those of the same dogs on Day 4/5 in the shelter or those of a group of pet dogs sampled in their own homes. There was no overall effect of 20 min of social interaction with a human (e.g., petting) on the plasma cortisol levels of dogs in the shelter on Day 1-3. However, the gender of the petter did affect cortisol levels. Those dogs interacting with a female had lower cortisol concentrations at the end of the session than did dogs interacting with a male. The results suggest that confinement in a public animal shelter produces a prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Further, it appears that some subtle aspect of interaction with a human may be capable of moderating this response. Possible implications for the welfare of confined dogs, and for the development of behavior problems in dogs obtained from shelters, are discussed.

Hennessy, M. B., Voith, V. L., Mazzei, S. J., Buttram, J., Miller, D. D., & Linden, F. (2001). Behavior and cortisol levels of dogs in a public animal shelter, and an exploration of the ability of these measures to predict problem behavior after adoption. Appl Anim Behav Sci, 73(3), 217-233.

Hydbring-Sandberg, E., von Walter, L. W., Hoglund, K., Svartberg, K., Swenson, L., & Forkman, B. (2004). Physiological reactions to fear provocation in dogs. J Endocrinol, 180(3), 439-448.

    * Abstract: Fear is a common behavioral problem in dogs. In this paper, we studied the association between behavioral and physiological responses in two potentially fear-eliciting situations. The aim was to establish whether it is possible to separate dogs of the collie breed that are fearful of floors and gunshots from those that are not by studying changes in heart rate and hematocrit, plasma cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin concentrations. Thirteen privately owned male dogs of the collie breed were studied during a floor test, using different types of floors, and a subsequent gunshot test. Seven of the dogs were identified as being fearful of floors and six were declared as fearless. Out of the 13 dogs, seven were fearful of gunshots and six were fearless of gunshots. Since fear of floors did not always occur concomitantly with fear of gunshots, there were consequently four different groups of dogs. The heart rate increased during the floor test in all groups, but dogs that were fearful of floors had higher heart rates than dogs that were fearless of floors. Dogs that were fearful of gunshots had higher heart rates, higher hematocrit levels and higher plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphins during the gunshot test than did dogs that were found to be fearless of gunshots. Plasma cortisol and progesterone increased drastically during the gunshot test in dogs identified as being fearful of gunshots. In fearful dogs, the testosterone concentration increased after completion of the floor test and before the gunshot test started, but there were no significant differences in testosterone between the groups. Since dogs fearful of gunshots had increased levels of several physiological parameters, the results demonstrated that this fear is a serious stress for the individual, a fear which it is possible to register with physiological variables.

Knies, K., Erhard, M. H., & Ahrens, F. (2005). Effect of moderate stress on plasma histamine concentration in laboratory dogs. Inflamm Res, 54 Suppl 1, S32-33.

Kobelt, A. J., Hemsworth, P. H., Barnett, J. L., & Butler, K. L. (2003). Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs. Res Vet Sci, 75(2), 157-161.

    * Abstract: The main advantage of collecting saliva cortisol as opposed to plasma cortisol is that it is non-invasive and therefore it is now widely used in stress measurement studies on farm animals and dogs. Although a plasma cortisol response to handling associated with blood collection generally occurs at 3 min from the commencement of handling, there is no information in the literature on the time course of the response of salivary cortisol concentration to handling. The aims of these experiments were to (1). determine if there is a response to up to 4 min handling that affects cortisol concentration in saliva and (2). determine the main causes of variation in saliva cortisol in dogs over time. In experiment 1, saliva was collected from six Kelpies at 0 min then 2, 3 or 4 min after the commencement of restraint. There was no handling effect found in up to 4 min sampling time. In experiment 2, saliva was collected from six Labrador Retrievers five times in 2 h (14:00-16:00), three days a week for four weeks. Some of the sources of variation in saliva cortisol over time included between dog variation that varied over a period of days and variation between occasions that affected the group of dogs as a whole.

Lund, J. D., & Jorgensen, M. C. (1999). Behaviour patterns and time course of activity in dogs with separation problems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 63(3), 219-236.

    * Abstract: An analysis of video-recordings of 20 dogs with separation problems suggested that separation behaviour may be divided into: (1) exploratory behaviour, (2) object play including elements of predatory behaviour, (3) destructive behaviour, and (4) vocalization. Elimination behaviour reported by other authors was found in one case only. Separation behaviour was related to the level of arousal. A clear distinction between ‘destructive' dogs and ‘howlers' was not justified. Object play seemed to be closely related to destructive behaviour. A model for the time course of activity from the owner's departure was developed. The model includes two components: (1) a cyclic component having a period of 23–28 min and controlled by internal factors, and (2) a long-term exponential decrease, which may be influenced by external factors arousing the dog. The results supported the view that separation problems are caused by frustration related to the dependency on the owner, whereas they are not caused by disobedience or boredom. The frustration in turn may lead to arousal, increased fear and the disinhibition of play or predatory behaviour and leading to destructive behaviour. The results also indicated that barking was caused by arousal, whereas howling and whining may reflect the presence of fear.

Nesse, R. M., and Young, E.A. (2000). Evolutionary orginins and functions of the stress response [Electronic Version]. Encyclopedia of Stress, 2, 79-84. Retrieved August 31, 2005 from http://www-personal.umich.edu/nesse/Articles/Stress&Evolution-2000.pdf.

Overall, K. L. (2001). How to deal with anxiety and distress responses: dogs. Retrieved February 4, 2005, fromhttp://www.vin.com/ACVC/2001/AuthorIndex.htm

Overall, K. L., Hamilton, S. P., & Chang, M. L. (2006). Understanding the genetic basis of canine anxiety: Phenotyping dogs for behavioral, neurochemical, and genetic assessment. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 1, 124-141.

Rooney, N. J., Gaines, S. A., & Bradshaw, J. W. (2007). Behavioural and glucocorticoid responses of dogs (Canis familiaris) to kennelling: Investigating mitigation of stress by prior habituation. Physiol Behav.

Rushen, J. (2000). Some issues in the interpretation of behavioural responses to stress. In G. P. Moberg, and Mench, J.A. (Ed.), The Biology of Stress Basic Principles and Implications for Animal Welfare (pp. 23-42). Davis: CABI Publishing.

Schroll, S., Dehasse, J., Palme, R., Sommerfeld-Stur, I., & Löwenstein, G. (n/d). The use of DAP collar to reduce stress during training of police dogs A preliminary study. Retrieved June 4, 2006, from http://www.vet-magazin.com/.../DAP-collar.html

Tinbergen, N. (1974). Ethology and stress diseases. Science, 185, 20-27.

Tod, E., Brander, D., & Waran, N. (2005). Efficacy of dog appeasing pheromone in reducing stress and fear related behaviour in shelter dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 93, 295-308.

Wikipedia.org. (n/d). Stress (medicine).  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_adaptation_syndrome

Wikipedia.org. (n/d). Fight-or-flight response.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fight-or-flight_response

Wilson, S. D., and Keddy, Paul A. (1986). Species competitive ability and position along a natural stress/disturbance gradient. Ecology, 67(5), 1236-1242.

    * Abstract: We tested the prediction that plant species that grow in undisturbed, nutrient—rich habitats tend to have higher competitive abilities than those found in disturbed or nutrient—poor habitats. The distributions of seven species (Eriocaulon septangulare, Rhynchospora fusca, Hypericum ellipticum, Juncus pelocarpus, Lysimachia terrestris, Dulichium arundinaceum, and Drosera intermedia) were measured along a gradient of exposure to wave action on the shore of Axe Lake, Ontario. The exposure gradient incorporates disturbance, through the removal of plant biomass, and stress, through the creation of a gradient in sediment organic content, nutrient concentrations, and fine particle sizes. Species distributions on the exposure gradient were quantified by determining the mean sediment organic content of the quadrats containing each species. Competitive abilities were measured as relative increase in dry mass per plant, in a field experiment in which species were grown together in all pairwise combinations (N = 10 replicates). Species had significantly heterogeneous competitive abilities (P < .01). Species found on exposed, nutrient—poor shores (e.g., E. septangulare) had low competitive abilities, while those growing on sheltered, nutrient—rich shores (e.g., D. arundinaceum) had high competitive abilities. Competitive ability was significantly correlated with mean position on the exposure gradient.

Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research - Article in Press - Behavioral effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs - Lori R. KoganRegina Schoenfeld-TacherAllen A. Simon, Clinical Sciences Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, published online 18 May 2012.,  *Abstract * 

Dogs are kenneled in professional facilities for a variety of reasons; however, the kennel environment, even for short periods, is a potential psychogenic stressor for most dogs. Continual stress and the resultant anxiety are undesirable for both ethical and physiological reasons. One growing area of research pertaining to the welfare of kenneled dogs is environmental enrichment, including auditory stimulation. The current study investigated the impact of music (classical, heavy metal, and specifically designed/altered classical) on activity level, vocalization, and body shaking of 117 kenneled dogs. Results suggest that classical music leads to kenneled dogs spending more time sleeping (F8,354 = 12.24, P > 0.0001) and less time vocalizing (F8,354 = 3.61, P > 0.0005) than when exposed to other music types or no music. Heavy metal music, compared with other music types, appears to increase body shaking (F8,354 = 96.97, P > 0.0001), a behavior suggestive of nervousness. It is suggested that playing classical music in a shelter environment may help mitigate some of the stress inherent for many kenneled dogs.


Dog Development

Denenberg, V. H. (1964). Critical Periods, Stimulus Input, and Emotional Reactivity: a Theory of Infantile Stimulation. Psychol Rev, 71, 335-351.

Denenberg, V. H., & Morton, J. R. C. (1962). Effects of environmental complexity and social groupings upon modification of emotional behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55(2), 242-246.

Fox, M. W., & Stelzner, D. (1966). Behavioural effects of differential early experience in the dog. Animal Behaviour, 14, 273-281.


Dog Barking


Appleby, D. Constant barking can be avoided ~ Offering guidance to owners: The Pet Behaviour Centre.

Frisby, H. (n/d). Barking: a common dog behavior problem. Retrieved 2005, from athttp://www.peteducation.com/behavior/barking.htm

Moffat, K. S., Landsberg, G. M., & Beaudet, R. (2003). Effectiveness and comparison of citronella and scentless spray bark collars for the control of barking in a veterinary hospital setting. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, 39(4), 343-348.

Sales, G., Hubrecht, R., Peyvandi, A., Milligan, S., & Shield, B. (1997). Noise in dog kennelling: Is barking a welfare problem for dogs? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52, 321-329.

Salzinger, K., & Waller, M. B. (1962). The operant control of vocalization in the dog. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5(3), 383-389.

Schroll, S., Dehasse, J., Palme, R., Sommerfeld-Stur, I., & Löwenstein, G. (n/d). The use of DAP collar to reduce stress during training of police dogs A preliminary study. Retrieved June 4, 2006, from http://www.vet-magazin.com/wissenschaft/.../DAP-collar.html

Wells, D. L., & Hepper, P. G. (2000). The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs. Appl Anim Behav Sci, 68(2), 151-162.

    * Abstract: The majority of sheltered dogs are overlooked for purchase because they are considered undesirable by potential buyers. Many factors may determine a dog's appeal, although of interest here are the dog's behaviour and cage environment which can influence its desirability. People prefer dogs which are at the front rather than the back of the cage, quiet as opposed to barking, and alert rather than non-alert. Potential buyers also prefer dogs which are held in complex as opposed to barren environments. This study examined the behaviour of sheltered dogs in response to environmental change, to determine whether it influenced dog behaviour in ways that could be perceived as desirable to potential dog buyers, and/or had any effect upon the incidence of dogs purchased from the shelter. One hundred and twenty dogs sheltered by the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals were studied over a 4-h period. The dogs' position in the cage, vocalisation, and activity were investigated in response to increased human social stimulation, moving the dog's bed to the front of the cage, or suspending a toy from the front of the dog's cage. Social stimulation resulted in dogs spending more time at the front of the enclosure, more time standing, and slightly more time barking. Moving the bed to the front of the cage encouraged dogs to this position, but did not influence activity or vocalisation. Suspending a toy at the front of the pen exerted no effect on dog behaviour, although its presence in the pen may help to promote more positive perceptions of dog desirability. The incidence of dogs purchased from the rescue shelter increased whenever the dogs' cages were fitted with a bed at the front of the pen, whenever the dogs were subjected to increased regular human contact, and whenever a toy was placed at the front of the enclosure. Findings highlight the important role that cage environment can play in shaping the behaviour of sheltered dogs and influencing whether or not an animal will become purchased.

Yin, S. (2002). A new perspective on barking in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 116(2), 189-193.

    * Abstract: The disparity in bark frequency and context between dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves (Canis lupus) has led some researchers to conclude that barking in the domestic dog is nonfunctional. This conclusion attributes the differences primarily to genetic variation caused by domestication rather than to the influence of social environment on ontogeny. Other researchers, however, have concluded that vocal usage and response to vocalizations in mammals are strongly guided by social interactions. Closer evaluation of dog vocalizations with respect to social environment reveals developmental factors that lead to both frequent barking and barking in many contexts. Additionally, spectrographic analysis indicates that bark structure varies predictably with context, suggesting that barks can be divided into contextual subtypes and may be a more complex form of communication than given credit.

Yin, S., & McCowan, B. (2004). Barking in domestic dogs: context specificity and individual identification. Animal Behaviour, 68, 343-355. [available at http://faculty.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/faculty/bjmccowan/Pubs/Yin&McCowan.2004.pdf]

    * Abstract: In this study we sought to determine whether dog barks could be divided into subtypes based on context. We recorded barking from 10 adult dogs, Canis familiaris, of six breeds in three different test situations: (1) a disturbance situation in which a stranger rang the doorbell, (2) an isolation situation in which the dog was locked outside or in a room isolated from its owner and (3) a play situation in which either two dogs or a human and a dog played together. We analysed spectrograms of 4672 barks using macros that took 60 sequential frequency measurements and 60 sequential amplitude measurements along the length of the call. Statistical analyses revealed that barks are graded vocalizations that range from harsh, low-frequency, unmodulated calls to harmonically rich, higher-frequency, modulated calls. The harsh, low-frequency, unmodulated barks were more commonly given in the disturbance situation, and the more tonal, higherpitch, modulated barks were more commonly given in the isolation and play situations. Disturbance barks were also longer in duration with more rapid repetition than the barks given in other contexts. Discriminant analysis revealed that dog barks can be divided into different subtypes based on context even within individual dogs, and that dogs can be identified by their bark spectrograms despite the context of the bark.

[not on dogs but interesting] American Scientist - June 2012, On the use of contact calls in various animals.  Contact calls are a particular category of calls that animals produce to establish and maintain contact with companions while moving through their habitat or reuniting after separation.   

Spaying and Neutering - Not Always a Positive Impact on Behaviour:

A report from the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation reported significantly more behavioral problems in castrated dogs. The most commonly observed behavioral problem in spayed females was fearful behavior and the most common problem in males was aggression. (Source:  Meuten, DJ, Tumors in Domestic Animals, 4th Edn, Iowa State Press, Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa, p. 575)


Early age gonadectomy is associated with an increased incidence of noise phobias (Source: Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA, "Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs," JAVMA 2004; 224:380-387)


Spaying in female dogs removes the production of progesterone, which is a natural calming hormone and a serotonin uplifter. Spaying may therefore escalate any observable aggressive behaviour, either to humans or other dogs. (Source: Wikepedia)

From Christine Zink: (comment) http://www.caninesports.com/SpayNeuter.html and Behavioral and Physical Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) <http://www.caninesports.com/SNBehaviorBoneDataSnapShot.pdf>

de Jonge FH, Eerland EM, van de Poll NE. (1986). Sex-specific interactions between aggressive and sexual behavior in the rat: effects of testosterone and progesterone. Horm Behav. 20(4):432-44

    * Abstract: The influence of progesterone on sexual and aggressive behaviors during aggressive encounters was investigated in pairs of TP-treated male and female rats. Gonadectomized females, chronically injected with testosterone propionate (TP), showed low but consistent levels of feminine sexual behavior which alternated with aggression. Progesterone when given in addition to TP facilitated receptive and proceptive behaviors, but reduced levels of aggression. In TP-treated males, levels of aggression were the same as observed in TP-treated females. However, TP-treated males seldomly showed sexual behavior during aggressive encounters and additional treatment with progesterone did not affect their behavior. After the aggression tests, animals were tested in a social preference test in which an ovariectomized female cage mate and the opponent from the aggressive encounter served as incentives. Positive correlations between levels of aggression and social preference for an opponent were found in both sexes, although correlations only reached statistical significance when progesterone was given in addition to TP. These correlations were found in both sexes, despite the fact that group analysis revealed pronounced sex differences in social preference: males preferred to spend their time near ovariectomized female cage mates, whereas females divided their time equally among female cage mates and opponents.


Compaan JC, van Wattum G, de Ruiter AJ, van Oortmerssen GA, Koolhaas JM, Bohus B. (1993). Genetic differences in female house mice in aggressive response to sex steroid hormone treatment. Physiol Behav. 54(5):899-902

    * Abstract: Male mice, genetically selected for aggression, characterized by short attack latency (SAL) or long attack latency (LAL), differ on several testosterone (T)-related parameters during ontogeny and adult age. The variation in aggressive behavior at adult age may be due to differences in degree of androgenization prenatally. When exposed to T at prenatal, neonatal, and/or adult age, nonlactating females also display intraspecific fighting behavior. In the present study, we investigated in females of the SAL and LAL selection lines, whether the differentiation of aggression involves processes similar to ones seen in males. Therefore, we injected females with testosterone propionate (TP) or vehicle on the day of birth, treated them after ovariectomy at adult age with T, estradiol (E), or vehicle, and tested their aggressive response. We found that neonatally vehicle-treated SAL females show a higher aggressive response to chronic T treatment at adult age than LAL females receiving the same treatment. Females of both selection lines treated with vehicle or E as adults were not aggressive. Neonatal TP treatment did not influence the adult T sensitivity and difference between selection lines in response to T at adult age. However, neonatally TP-treated SAL females showed aggressive behavior when treated with E at adult age, whereas LAL females failed to do so. These results suggest a genetic difference in susceptibility to T and E, which plays a major role prenatally, in organizing the development of sex steroid-dependent neural systems.


Compaan JC, de Ruiter AJ, Koolhaas JM, van Oortmerssen GA, Bohus B. (1992). Differential effects of neonatal testosterone treatment on aggression in two selection lines of mice. Physiol Behav. 51(1):7-10

    * Abstract: Selection lines of mice, artificially selected for aggression based upon the attack latency score (ALS), were used. In order to determine the relative contribution of neonatal testosterone (T) in the development of aggression, we vary the plasma-T level in males of both selection lines on the day of birth. At 14 weeks the ALS was measured. Neonatal T treatment results in a reduction of aggression in the long attack latency (LAL) line, whereas aggressive behaviour of the short attack latency (SAL) line is not affected. Both selection lines show reduction in testicular weight, although the total amount of T-producing Leydig cells was not affected. Neonatal T may cause a permanent reduction in aggressive behaviour in in the LAL line only, probably due to differential appearance of critical periods. It is suggested that the difference in aggressive behaviour between SAL and LAL selection lines is due to a prenatally determined difference in neonatal T sensitivity of the brain.


O'Farrell, V., & Peachey, E. (1990). Behavioural effects of ovariohysterectomy on bitches. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 31, 595-598.

Overall, K.L. (1995). Sex and aggression. Canine Practice, 20(3): 16-18

van de Poll NE, van Zanten S, de Jonge FH. (1986). Effects of testosterone, estrogen, and dihydrotestosterone upon aggressive and sexual behavior of female rats. Horm Behav. 20(4):418-31.

    * Abstract: Groups of female TMD rats were treated either with estradiol benzoate (EB), dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP), testosterone propionate (TP), EB + DHTP (EB/DHTP), or with oil. These groups of females were tested for social aggression and for masculine and feminine sexual behavior. In addition, patterns of masculine and feminine sexual responses during the aggressive encounters, were investigated. TP-treated females of the same strain were used as opponents in the tests for aggression. In accordance with previous results, EB did not activate aggression whereas TP treatment resulted in a significant increase in aggression in females. Aggressive responses were activated by adding DHTP to EB, up to levels equal to those activated by TP. Sexual responses were observed in the tests for aggression as well as in tests for sexual behavior. The results indicated that feminine and masculine sexual responses were affected significantly by hormonal treatment. Mounting behavior in the test for aggression was activated by TP and by EB/DHTP. Lordosis and proceptive responses were inhibited in these groups as compared to EB-treated females, both in tests for aggression and in tests for sexual behavior. The results are consistent with the idea that dihydrotestosterone inhibits feminine and activates masculine sexual activity. The results also indicate that EB and DHTP synergistically activate aggression.


vom Saal, F.S. (1989). Sexual differentiation in litter-bearing mammals: influence of sex of adjacent fetuses in utero. Journal of Animal Science, 67:1824-1840

    * Abstract: In rodents and swine, individual differences in a broad range of characteristics correlate with intrauterine position during fetal life. By identifying the intrauterine position of mice at cesarean delivery, we can predict reliably postnatal reproductive traits such as genital morphology, timing of puberty, length of estrous cycles, timing of reproductive senescence, sexual attractiveness, sexual behavior, aggressiveness, daily activity level, body weight and tissue enzyme activity in females; in males we can predict genital and brain morphology, sexual behavior, aggressiveness, daily activity level, body weight, and tissue enzyme activity. In mice, as in all mammals, male fetuses have greater concentrations of testosterone than do females. In addition, female mouse fetuses have greater circulating concentrations of estradiol than do male fetuses, a condition not found in all mammals. A mouse fetus positioned between males has greater concentrations of testosterone than does a fetus of the same sex positioned between females, and a fetus positioned between females has greater concentrations of estradiol than does a fetus of the same sex positioned between males. Gonadal steroids regulate differentiation of secondary sexual characteristics. Studies in which the effects of intrauterine position have been eliminated by exposing fetuses to steroid receptor blockers reveal the critical role of steroids in mediating this phenomenon. The intrauterine position phenomenon provides the only mammalian model for relating postnatal traits to concentrations of endogenous hormones to which individuals are exposed during fetal life. Results from studies using this naturally occurring experimental system in litter-bearing species have given insights concerning the consequences of individual differences in steroid concentrations during sexual differentiation that likely apply to all mammals. One specific hypothesis is that circulating estradiol may interact with testosterone in mediating some aspects of sexual differentiation in rodents and, thus, possibly in other mammals.


vom Saal, F.S. (1981). Variation in phenotype due to random intrauterine positioning of male and female fetuses in rodents. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 62:633-650

    * Abstract: Rodents are polytocous mammals, and male and female fetuses can develop in utero contiguous to fetuses of the same or opposite sex. This paper describes experiments demonstrating that random intrauterine positioning of male and female fetuses results in within-sex variation in phenotype in mice and rats. This phenomenon provides a clear example of the degree to which the intrauterine environment can bias development in terms of effects on morphology, physiology and behaviour. I propose that individual differences in reproductively-related characteristics based on prior intrauterine position may play a role both in the regulation of population size in rodents and in the reproductive success of individuals as changes in population size occur.


Thunderphobia & Social and Spatial Restriction (could be Thundershirts, crates or tethers, for example):

Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. I. Behavioral responses
Abstract – When challenged, chronically stressed dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction may show increased excitement, aggression, and uncertainty, Beerda B, Schilder MB, van Hooff JA, de Vries HW, Mol JA., Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

 Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine by Nicole Cottam and Dr. Nicholas Dodman the Anxiety Wrap was found to be effective in 89% of the study participants suffering from Thunderstorm phobia (pre-publication).

Storm Defender Cape may have some positive impact (actually any non-anti-static-cape).  In a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm Defender Nicole Cottam and Dr. Nicholas Dodman at Tufts University divided 23 dogs into two groups, one with the anti-static Storm Defender cape and the other, a control group with a non-anti-static cape. Both capes resulted in a significant reduction in owner-reported anxiety scores from baseline scores.  (http://anxietywrapsays.blogspot.com/2012/02/comparison-of-anxiety-wrap-thundershirt.html)  retrieved June 15, 2012

Harmonease may reduce fear and anxiety - Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research - Article in Press - Harmonease Chewable Tablets reduces noise-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory canine thunderstorm simulation: A blinded and placebo-controlled study - Theresa L. DePorter, Oakland Veterinary Referral Services, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, Gary M. Landsberg, North Toronto Animal Clinic, Thornhill, ON, Canada, Joseph A. Araujo, Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, CanCog Technologies Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada, Jennifer L. Ethier, CanCog Technologies Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada, David L. Bledsoe, Veterinary Products Laboratories, Phoenix, Arizona - published online 18 January 2012. *Abstract * Thunderstorm simulation in the laboratory setting induces fearful and anxious behavior in beagles, most notably manifested by increased inactivity (“freezing”), which, in a previous study, was ameliorated by the anxiolytic diazepam (Araujo et al., 2009). Using this protocol, the present study assessed the efficacy of Harmonease, a chewable oral anxiolytic botanical product containing a proprietary blend of extracts of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense. A balanced, placebo-controlled, blinded, single crossover design including 20 healthy adult beagles was used for this study. After a baseline thunderstorm test, subjects received Harmonease Chewable Tablets or placebo treatment daily and were reassessed on the treatment day 7. After a 7-day washout period, the treatments were crossed over and a design identical to that used in the first phase was used. The thunderstorm test was performed in an open-field arena (8 ft × 9 ft) and consisted of three 3-minute phases: an anticipatory phase in which no stimulus was provided; the thunderstorm phase in which a thunderstorm track was played over a speaker system; and a recovery phase in which no stimulus was presented. Inactivity duration was considered the primary variable for assessing efficacy which was measured by a trained observer. Difference in number of dogs improved versus worsened by treatment group was significant at P < 0.05. Specifically, 12 of 20 (60%) dogs improved from baseline when treated with Harmonease, whereas only 5 of 20 (25%) improved on placebo. Furthermore, 9 of 20 (45%) placebo dogs showed increased inactivity duration (worsened), whereas only 4 of 20 (20%) treatment dogs worsened. Increases in distance travelled consistent with reduced inactivity were also seen under Harmonease. Harmonease reduced fear-related inactivity or freezing in dogs in this thunderstorm simulation model. This supports past studies demonstrating that the combination of botanical extracts in Harmonease is effective in dogs for the management of stress-related behaviors.


Use of Squeeze Restraint in Autistic Humans and Aggressive Dogs

Temple Grandin's study http://www.grandin.com/inc/squeeze.html /http://www.grandin.com/behaviour/tips/equine.restraint.html


 "Full Body Restraint and Rapid Stimulus Exposure as a Treatment for Dogs With Defensive Aggressive Behavior: Three Case Studies"
http://escholarship.ucop.edu/uc/item/8qs696pt#page-1


Canine Cognition (how dogs think and perceive):

Spatial Memory in dog on a radial maze

Will your dog get you help in an emergency?

Do dogs seek information from a helper? Metacognition in canines.

Emulation vs. Imitation


Use of Shock Collars:

An Open Letter from Dr Karen Overall regarding the use of shock collars, Editorial – Why electric shock is not behavior modification, Journal of Veterinary Behavior 2: 1-4. Even though it states clearly that this is an editorial piece, Overall’s 2005 letter and a further 2007 paper on Training Methods may be cited mistakenly as a study. She notes” there is never any reason for pets to be shocked as a part of therapy or treatmen..t. Let me make my opinion perfectly clear: Shock is not training– in the vast majority of cases it meets the criteria for abuse…  Such tools ‘work’ by engendering fear, pain, and distrust, and in doing so they cause long-term damage that make dogs more reactive, less trusting, and less able to reach their full potential in their partnership with humans, no matter what form that partnership takes… The historic use of adversarial, coercive techniques no longer makes sense given what we now know about dog cognition and learning. We can do better. The canine handler teams that work best are those that best understand and trust each other.”

Polsky 1994, Electronic Shock Collars: Are They Worth the Risk?,  Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 30: 463-468. This study concludes that e-collars are only appropriate for use as a last resort by experienced users on a case by case basis. Polsky notes that “Punishment training with an electronic shock collar is not advisable for aggression stemming from dominance, aggression arising out of fear, or other kinds of misbehaviors that are fear-related” and states that the main problems in use of the device arise from ‘random’ shocks from some collars, the fact that it is difficult to fit very small dogs, the bad timing of some dog owners, and the possibility of pressure sores.  Also in Polsky 2000, Can Aggression in Dogs be Elicited Through the use of Electronic Pet Containment Systems, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(4): 345-357.  This article, studying five dogs, discusses how electronic pet containment systems may act as elicitors of aggressive behavior.

Eckstein and Hart 1996, Treatment of acral lick dermatitis by behavior modification using electronic stimulation. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Assocation 32: 225-229. The abstract states that acral lick dermatitis was successfully stopped by using shock collards in four of five dogs studied, and while two of the dogs relapsed in the six to twelve months following the study, a brief retraining/shocking period eliminated the behavior.

Beerda, Schilder, van Hooff, de Vries and Mol 1998, Behavioural, saliva cortisol and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58 (365-381). This study measured stress parameters in dogs subjected to aversive events consisting of things that included sound blasts and shocks. The goal was to find ways to measure stress quantitatively to help assess animal welfare. Shocks were used in a purely random, painful, aversive way and were noted as likely actue stressors as they triggered both more production of cortisol in saliva and a lowered posture

Coleman and Murray 2000, Collar mounted electronic devices for behavior modification in dogs. Urban Animal Management Conference Proceedings, Hobart, Australia. Coleman and Murray studied bark collars, boundary collars and remote trainers and stated that: “The data gathered from this survey showed that electronic training collars can be an effective remedial measure for some types of problem behaviour in dogs

Hiby, Rooney and Bradshaw 2004, Dog Training Methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare, Animal Welfare 13: 63-69. This paper is a survey of training methods commonly in use by the general pet owning public in the United Kingdom. The authors note that the use of aversives, including as employed in negative reinforcement, not only causes suffering but may also result in aggressive behavior.

Schilder and Van Der Borg 2004, Training dogs with help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioural effects, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85: 319–334.  It showed that 32 German shepherds were adversely affected by shock collars, long after the shock occurred.

Lindsay 2005, Chapter 9: Biobehavioral monitoring and electronic control of behavior in Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training: Procedures and Protocols, Vol. 3: 557-633. How electronic collars work -  high-level electronic shock causes a neurological response and a perception of pain (although no physical damage), but low-level electric shock causes tapping, tickling, and/or tingling sensations.

E. Schalke, J. Stichnoth, R. Jones-Baade 2005, Stress Symptoms Caused by the Use of Electric Training Collars on Dogs in Everyday Life Situations, Current Issues and Research in Veterinary Behavioral Medicine, Purdue University Press, ISBN 987-1-55753-409-5.  Schalke concluded, "The general use of electric shock collars is not consistent with animal welfare.”

Schalke, Stichnoth and Jones-Baade 2007; Clinical signs caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday situations, Applied Animal Behavior Science 105, 369-380. The results of this study suggest that poor timing in the application of high level electric pulses means there is a high risk that dogs will show severe and  persistent stress symptoms.

Schalke, Ott, Salgirli, Bohm and Hackbarth 2010, Comparison of stress and learning effects of three different training methods; Electric training collar, pinch collar, and quitting signal, Journal of Veterinary Behavior 5(1): 43-44. Study presentation in PowerPoint and link to full dissertation.  E-collars were more effective and less stressful than pinch collars or quitting signals in this study of police dogs – although it does not appear the quitting signal was proofed against arousal prior to using it.

Jacques and Myers 2007, Electronic Training Devices: A Review of Current Literature, Animal Behavior Consulting: Theory and Practice, Spring 2007, 22-39. A study on electronic training devices and how they work including physiological effects, psychological effects and effects on learning.

Salgirli 2008, Comparison of Stress and Learning Effects of Three Different Training Methods: Electronic Training Collar, Pinch Collar and Quitting Signal, doctoral dissertation (unpublished) University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. The results of the study indicate that the electronic training collar induces less distress and shows stronger “learning effect” in dogs in comparison to the pinch collar.

Haverbeke, Laporte, Depiereux, Giffroy, Diederich 2008, Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the teams’ performances, Applied Animal Behavior Science 113: 110-122. Haverbeke et al. analyzed how training methods used on working dogs and the performances of the dog handlers affected the dogs’ welfare. 

Herron, Shofer and Reisner 2009, Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors, Applied Animal Behavior Science 117: 47-54 The study noted an association between the use of confrontational training methods and aggressive canine responses was observed in the population sampled.

Tortora “Safety Training: The Elimination of Avoidance-Motivated Aggression in Dogs,” was published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General in 1983 (also published in Australian Veterinary Practitioner in 1984, 14 (2), 70–74.)  The study consists of work with dangerously aggressive companion dogs who were trained in obedience behaviors as “safety behaviors” as a replacement for aggression.  If they did not choose to perform the safety behaviors instead of aggression the dogs were shocked.  After training, owners were taught to use the shock collar and the training was transferred into everyday situations. The training resulted in a long-lasting and complete suppression of aggressive behaviour in the dogs. Dogs were followed up 3 years after the end of training, and the reduction in aggression were maintained  Also Tortora’s 1992 book on the use of e-collars.

 

How do wild dogs, wolves and pet dogs compare to one another?

Diet of free ranging dogs shows scavenging

Dogs and wolves do not behave the same - a comparison

Dogs read human communication - hand raised wolves do not

Dr. Mech, known expert on wolf pack dynamics explains how pack structure really works


How does breeding affect a dog's behaviour?

Current use of breeding stock affects dog behaviour - not use in the past


Clicker Training

Blandina, A., 2010 – "To Click or Not to Click" University of Florida unpublished masters thesis- dogs did slightly better with a verbal marker than a clicker).* Abstract * Dog training has a history dating back centuries, yet very few empirical studies have compared different training methods. One currently popular method is clicker training. In clicker training, when the correct behavior occurs a click is produced and followed immediately with food.  The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the clicker is the most initially effective training method in decreasing the number of trials in teaching a dog to stay when compared to other positive reinforcement methods. Using naive puppies (aged 2 to 6 months) the current study compares the efficacy of clicker training with 1) the delivery of food alone and 2) the use of a verbal marker. Although there have been a few studies comparing some of these positive reinforcement methods against each other, this is the first study to compare all three within one experimental design. I found that the delivery of food alone facilitated learning in a novel behavior causing a higher proportion of puppies to reach higher shaping approximation levels when compared to clicker training and the use of a verbal marker. These findings are consistent with years of previous research that have also found primary reinforcement to be the most effective positive reinforcement method.

Halford, G.S., Halford, J.M., 1969. Secondary reinforcement: signal or substitute reward? A preliminary investigation. Aus. J. Psychol. 21 (2), 145–147.

Smith, S.M., Davis, E.S., Clicker increases resistance to extinction but does not decrease training time of a simple operant task in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2007.04.012


Student presentations (2005) from University of North Texas at Association for Behavior Analysis (posted at Karen Pryor’s/clicker trainer’s site).


Wood, L. (2007). Clicker Bridging Stimulus Efficacy.(using clickers vs. marking words showed dogs did better with clickers) Unpublished Manuscript, Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, New York. *Abstract* Acquisition of a multiple component task, such as approaching and touching a target apparatus on cue, plays an important role in animal training and husbandry. Experimental training of two groups of 10 naïve dogs (Canis familiaris) to perform the target task differed only by the assigned bridging stimulus: a clicker or spoken word "good." Although both types of bridging stimuli are used in the training field to indicate the precise instance of correct behavior, this study represents the first systematic comparison of the efficacy of these two types of bridging stimuli. There was a decrease of over 1/3 in training time and number of required reinforcements for the clicker as compared to the verbal condition group. The clicker trained dogs achieved behavior acquisition in significantly (p < .05) fewer minutes and required significantly fewer primary reinforcements than verbal condition dogs. The difference in effectiveness of the two bridging stimuli was most apparent at the onset of each new task component. It appears that use of the clicker, by providing a more precise marker than a verbal bridging stimulus, is responsible for superior acquisition of complex behaviors such as that studied here. The facilitation of learning provided by the clicker bridging stimulus has important implications for animal training, especially when professionals are confronted with time constraints. The potential of the clicker stimulus to improve animal learning throughout the entire process of a behavior may not only increase the rate of behavior acquisition, but also reduce animal frustration and further enhance the relationship between trainer and animal.

Whitehead, Sarah, Clicker training – neurochemistry in action, Veterinary Nursing Journal, Vol. 26, IS  - 5, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, SN  - 2045-0648,  DO  - 10.1111/j.2045-0648.2010.00044.x, SP  - 165, EP  - 166, PY  - 2011 *Abstract  Clicker training has now become a world-wide phenomenon, with many trainers recognising its benefits for training different species with kindness and behavioural understanding. This article investigates how this method has implications for veterinary practice as well as the training class, and whether we are still only scratching the surface of its potential impact on behavioural problem prevention and treatment.

Friend, TH. [research on horses] Efficacy of a Secondary Reinforcer During Acquisition and Extinguishment, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 88 (2004) 331–341, *Abstract “Clicker training” is a popularly promoted training method based on operant conditioning with the use of a secondary reinforcer (the clicker). While this method draws from theories of learning and is used widely, there has been little scientific investigation of its efficacy. We used 60 horses, Equus callabus, and assigned each horse to one of six reinforcement protocols. The reinforcement protocols involved combinations of reinforcers administered (primary versus secondary plus primary), schedule of reinforcement (continuous versus variable ratio), and reinforcers applied during extinction (none or secondary). There were no differences (P 0.11) between horses which received a secondary reinforcer (click) followed by the primary reinforcer (food) and those which received only the primary reinforcer (food) in the number of trials required to train the horses to touch their noses to a plastic cone (operant response). There also were no differences (P 0.12) between horses which received the secondary reinforcer plus primary reinforcer and those which received only the primary reinforce in regards to the number of trials to extinction. We conclude that there is no difference in the amount of training required to learn the operant task or in the task’s resistance to extinction between horses that received a secondary reinforcer. 

SECTION 3: (more interesting "stuff") 



Research that might be useful:

Any new ways to treat humans that have conditions similar to dogs could be investigated for their potential in this area/market:


AURIC (Auburn University Research in Cancer) - Reviews and conducts research on both canines and humans to look for cancer solutions.

Or, as an example - OCD - Do new treatments for OCD in humans (like the tuberculosis drug D-cycloserine) offer potential treatment options for dogs with OCD?

OCD, short for obsessive compulsive disorder, is a type of anxiety disorder that is a potentially disabling illness that traps dogs in endless cycles of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. Dogs with OCD likely experience recurring and distressing thoughts, fears, or images, obsessions, which they cannot control.  The anxiety produced by these thoughts leads to an urgent need to perform certain rituals or routines.  The compulsive rituals are performed in attempt to prevent the obsessive thoughts or make them go away.  Although the ritual may make the anxiety go away temporarily, the dog must perform the ritual again when the obsessive thoughts return. This OCD cycle can progress to the point of taking up hours of the dog's day and significantly interfering with normal activities. The symptoms of OCD, which are obsessions and compulsions, may vary.  A few obsessions include: licking themselves until the skin becomes raw (canine lick granuloma), others will bite and snap at the air (or other unseen objects) for many consecutive minutes, chew a bone or suck on a toy for hours without stopping, flank sucking, pacing, circling, or spinning, incessant or rhythmic barking or even repeated freezing and staring.

Trainer and Caregiver Burnout and Compassion Fatigue:



1.  Saint-Louis, Nicole (2010) A narrative intervention with oncology professionals: Stress & burnout reduction through an interdisciplinary group process. Social work doctoral thesis - University of Pennsylvania.

2.  Beck, CT  (2011)  Secondary traumatic stress in nurses:  A systematic review.  Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 25: 1-10.

3.  Boyle, Deborah (2011)  Countering compassion fatigue: A requisite nursing agenda.  The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol 16 (1).

4.  Chavez, Marc (2011)  Predictors of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction ratings among healthcare workers in critical and non-critical units.  Paper and poster presented April 2011 at the 2nd Annual Nursing Research Day in Boise ID.

5.  Day, Jennifer and Ruth A Anderson (2011)  Compassion fatigue: an application of the concept to informal caregivers of family members with dementia.  Nursing Research & Practice, Article ID 408024, 10 pages.

6.  De Oliveria, GS et al  (2011)  High incidence of burnout in academic chairpersons of anesthesiology: Should we be taking better care of our leaders?  Anesthesiology, 114: 181-193.

 7.  Dworznik, Gretchen  (2011) Factors contributing to PTSD and compassion fatigue in television news workers.  International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, Volume 1, No 1, July 2011.

8.  Hyman, SA et al  (2011) Risk of burnout in perioperative clinicians, Anesthesiology, 114: 194-204.

9.  Levy, Hannah et al  (2011)  Deployment stressors and outcomes among air force chaplains.  Journal of Traumatic Stress,  Vol 24(3) 342-346.

10.  Sabo, Brenda (2011)  Reflecting on the concept of compassion fatigue in nursing care.  The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing,  Vol 16 (1).

11.  Slocum-Gori, Suzanne et al  (2011)  Understanding compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout: A survey of the hospice palliative care workforce.  Palliative Medicine (online), December 16, 2011. pmj.sagepub.com.

12.  State Bar of Wisconsin  (2011)  The Toll of Trauma.  Wisconsin Lawyer, Vol 84 (12) December 2011.

13.  Ward-Griffin C et al (2011)  Compassion fatigue within double duty caregiving: nurse-daughters caring for elderly parents.  Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 16(1), manuscript 4.


Dog Social Interaction


(this section in particular has many articles not related directly to dogs, although understanding social dominance really means understanding it in many species. I will leave many dog dog citations in for those who wish to access the literature for other species as well). I will focus on providing abstracts for those related most to dogs.


Abernethy, V. (1981). Dominance, feminist hierarchies, and heterosexual dyads (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 429-430.


Adams, D. B. (1979). Brain mechanisms for offense, defense, and submission. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 201-241.


Allee, W. C. (1942). Social dominance and subordination among vertebrates. Biological Symposia, 8, 139-162.


Altman, S. A. (1981). Doiminance relationships: The Cheshire cat's grin (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 430-431.


American_Veterinary_Society_of_Animal_Behavior. (2007). Guidelines on the Use of Punishment for Dealing with Behavior Problems in Animals [Electronic Version]. AVSAB. Retrieved November 24, 2007 fromhttp://www.avsabonline.org/avsabonline/images/stories/punishment%20guidelines-aversives%20effects-definitions.pdf.


Appleby, M. C. (1979). The probability of linearity in hierarchies. The behavioral and brain sciences, 2, 201-241.


Aureli, F., Cords, Marina, and Van Schaik, Carel P. (2002). Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework. Animal Behaviour, 64, 325-343.


Baenniger, R. (1981). Dominance: On distinguishing the baby from the bathwater (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 431-432.


Banks, E. M. (1981). Dominance and behavioral primatologist: A case of typological thinking? (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 432-433.


Barrette, C. (1993). The 'inheritance of dominance', or of an aptitude to dominate. Animal Behaviour, 46, 591-593.


Barrette, C., & Vandal, D. (1986). Social rank, dominance, antler size, and access to food in snow-bound wild woodland caribou. Behaviour, 97(118-146).


Beaugrand, J. P. (1997). Relative importance of initial individual differences, agonistic experience, and assessment accuracy during hierarchy formation: a simulation study. Behavioral Processes, 41, 177-192.


Beaugrand, J. P., & Goulet, C. (2000). Distinguishing kinds of prior dominance and subordination experiences in male Green swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri). Behavioural Processes, 50, 131-142.


Begin, J., Beaugrand, P. J., & Zayan, R. (1996). Selecting dominants and subordinates at conflict outcome can confound the effects of prior dominance or subordination experience. Behavioral Processes, 36, 219-226.


Bekoff, M. (1995). Play signals as punctuation: the structure of social play in canids. Behaviour, 132, 419-429.


Bekoff, M. (downloaded 12/02/03). Dominance in Animal Social Groups. MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science athttp://ai.ato.ms/MITECS/Entry/bekoff1.


Bernstein, I. S. (1981). Dominance: the baby and the bath water. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 419-457.


Bernstein, I. S. (1981). Dominance relationships and rank: Explanations, and empirical challenges (response to commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 449-457.


Bernstein, I. S., & T.P., G. (1980). The social component of dominance relationships in rhesus monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 28, 1033-1039.


Bolles, R. C. (1981). A parallel to dominance competition (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 433-434.


Borchelt, P. L., and Voith, V.L. (1996). Dominance Aggression in Dogs. In V. L. Voith, and Borchelt, P.L. (Ed.), Readings in Companion Animal Behavior (pp. 230-237). Trenton, NJ: Veterinary Learning Systems.


Brain, P. F. (1981). The concept of dominance also has problems in studies on rodents (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 434-435.


Bramblett, C. A. (1981). Dominance tabulation: Giving form to concepts (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 435-436.


Brown, J. L. (1963). Aggressiveness dominance and social organization in the steller jay. Condor, 65, 460-484.


Candland, D. K., and Hoer, James B. (1981). The logical status of dominance (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 436-437.


Capitanio, J. P. (1991). Levels of integration and the 'inheritance of dominance'. Animal Behaviour, 42, 495-496.


Chalmers, N. R. (1981). Dominance as part of a relationship (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 437-438.


Chase, I. D. (1982). Behavioral sequences during dominance hierarchy formation in chickens. Science, 216, 439-440.


Chase, I. D. (1985). Explainations of hierarchy structure. Animal Behaviour, 34, 1265-1266.


Christian, J. (1970). Social subordination, population density and mammalian evolution. Science, 168, 84-90.


Christman, M. C., and Lewis, D. (2005). Spatial distribution of dominant animals within a grou: comparison of four staistical tests of location. Animal Behaviour, 70, 73-82.


Clothier, S. (n/d). Why not take candy from a baby (if he lets you?). at http://www.flyingdogpress.com/candy.html.


Collias, N. E. (1943). Statistical analysis of factors which make for success in initial encounters between hens. American Naturalist, 77, 519-538.


Conniff, R. (2000). I want to be boss? (the psychology of dominance). Discover, May.


de Waal, F. B. M. (1986). The interation of dominance and social bonding in primates. Quarterly Review of Biology, 61(4), 459-479.


DeNapoli, J. S., Dodman, Nicholas H., Shuster, Louis, Rand, William, Gross, Kathy. (2000). Effects of dietary protein content and tryptophan supplementation on dominance aggression, territorial aggression, and hyperactivity in dogs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 217(4), 504-508.


Dewsbury, D. A. (1990). Fathers and sons: genetic factors and social dominance in deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. Animal Behaviour, 39, 284-289.


Dodman, N. H., Donnelly, R., Shuster, L., Mertens, P., Rand, W., and Miczek, K. (1996). Use of fluoxetine to treat dominance aggression in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(9), 1585-1587.


    * Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoxetine for the treatment of owner-directed dominance aggression in dogs. DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: 9 dogs of various breeds, ages, and either sex determined to have owner-directed dominance aggression. PROCEDURE: Placebo and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg of body weight) were compared for the treatment of owner-directed dominance aggression in a single-blind crossover study. Owners were instructed to record aggressive and nonaggressive responses of their dogs daily on a canine-overt aggression chart for the 5-week duration of the study. Total aggression scores (linear and geometric) were calculated for each week of the study. The frequency of individual responses was also analyzed independently. RESULTS: Fluoxetine resulted in a significant (P = 0.01) reduction in owner-directed dominance aggression after 3 weeks of treatment. No particular aggressive response accounted for the overall reduction in aggression. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Fluoxetine may be useful in the management of dominance aggression in dogs.



Dodman, N. H., Moon, R., and Zelin, M. (1996). Influence of owner personality type on expression and treatment outcome of dominance aggression in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(6), 1107-1109.


    * Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the success rate of positive training methods and behavioral modification techniques in dogs with dominance aggression and to compare personality profiles between owners of dominant-aggressive and nondominant dogs. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: 10 dominant-aggressive dogs and 10 non-dominant, nonaggressive control dogs. PROCEDURE: Dominance aggression was quantified, using an aggression score, in the 10 dominant dogs before and after a nonconfrontational behavior modification program. The personality profile of the owners of dominant and control dogs, assessed by means of a Keirsey temperament sorter, was compared, as was the influence of owner personality on the outcome of behavioral modification in the dominant dogs. RESULTS: 9 of 10 dominant dogs responded to the nonconfrontational treatment program by a decrease in aggressive response to similar eliciting stimuli. Significant differences were not found between the personality of the owners of dominant versus control dogs, and owner personality did not significantly affect the outcome of behavior modification treatment. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Nonconfrontational behavior modification programs are effective in reducing owner-directed dominance aggression in dogs. Owner personality does not necessarily predispose certain individuals to assaults by dominant dogs or profoundly affect their ability to engage in a successful behavioral modification program.



Drews, C. (1993). The concept and definition of dominance in animal behaviour. Behaviour, 125(3-4), 283-313.


    * Abstract: The concept of dominance has contributed greatly to our understanding of social structure in animals. Over the past three decades, however, a variety of concepts and definitions of dominance have been introduced, leading to an ongoing debate about the usefulness and meaning of the concept. Criticisms aimed at one definition of dominance do not necessarilly apply to other definitions. Existing definitions can be structural or functional, refer to roles or to agonistic behaviour, regard dominance as a property of individuals or as an attribute of dyadic encounters, concentrate on aggression or on the lack of it, and be based either on theoretical constructs or on observable behaviour.



Dugatkin, L. A., and Ohlsen, Sandra R. (1989). Contrasting asymmetries in value expectation and resource holding power: effects on attack behaviour and dominance in the Pumpkinseed Sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus. Animal Behavior, 39(4), 802-804.


Eaton, G. G. (1981). Measurement and utility of dominance rankings (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 438.


Edwards, D. E., and Kravitz, E.A. (1997). Serotonin, social status and aggression. Current Opinions in Neurobiology, 7, 812-819.


    * Abstract: Serotonin, social status and aggression appear to be linked in many animal species, including humans. The linkages are complex, and, for the most part, details relating the amine to the behavior remain obscure. During the past year, important advances have been made in a crustacean model system relating serotonin and aggression. The findings include the demonstration that serotonin injections will cause transient reversals in the unwillingness of subordinate animals to engage in agonistic encounters, and that at specific synaptic sites involved in activation of escape behavior, the direction of the modulation by serotonin depends on the social status of the animal.



Flannelly, K. J., and Blanchard, Robert J. (1981). Dominance: Cause or description of social relationships? (commentary on Berntein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 438-440.


Gage, F. H. (1978). A multivariate approach to the analysis of social dominance. Behavioral Biology, 23, 38-51.


Gage, F. H. (1981). Dominance: Measure first and then define (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 440-441.


Gammell, M. P., De Vries, H., Jennings, D.J., Carlin, C.M., and Haydeb, T.J. (2003). David's score: a more appropriate dominance ranking method than Clutton_Brock et al.'s index. Animal Behaviour, 66, 601-605.


Gauthreaux Jr., S. A. (1981). Behavioral dominance from an ecological perspective (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 441.


Gese, E. M., & Mech, L. D. (1991). Dispersal of wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesot 1969-1989. Cabadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 2946-2955.


Hand, J. L. (1986). Resolution of social conflict: dominance, egalitarianism, speres of dominance, and game theory. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 61(2), 201-220.


Hartmann, S. (2002). The Harmony Program version 2.1.


Hinde, R. A., and Datta, Saroj. (1981). Dominance: An intervening variable (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 442.


Hofer, H. a. E., Marion L. (2000). Conflict Management in Female-Dominated Spotted Hyenas. In F. Aureli, and de Waal, Frans B.M. (Ed.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 232-234). Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.


Hsu, Y., & Wolf, L. L. (2001). The winner and loser effect: what fighting behaviours are influenced? Animal Behaviour, 61, 777-786.


    * Abstract: We examined the effect of prior winning and losing experiences on the initiating and responding strategies of contestants in contests between individuals of Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae). Each contestant was given a penultimate and a recent fighting experience approximately 48 and 24 h prior to the dyadic contests, respectively, through randomly selected procedures. Winning and losing experience appeared to influence different types of fighting behaviours. Losing experiences decreased the probability of an individual initiating a confrontation and thus increased its tendency to retreat immediately when challenged. Winning experiences did not affect the probability of initiation, but significantly increased the likelihood of an individual initiating with attacks that effectively deterred its opponents. A substantial proportion (59/153) of individuals retreated immediately when challenged and reduced the number of fights available for examining experience effects on responding strategies at later stages of a contest. None the less, winning experiences consistently increased the likelihood of an individual retaliating by attacking its opponent at various stages of a contest, and eventually increased its probability of escalating a confrontation into physical fights. However, the effects of losing experiences on these responding strategies were undetectable. Recent experiences significantly affected all fighting behaviours examined, but penultimate experiences significantly affected only the tendency to initiate a confrontation with attacks and the likelihood of escalation. These results indicated that prior experiences had the longest lasting effect on the potentially most costly fighting behaviour. Prior experiences influenced the outcome of nonescalated contests as well as the probability of escalation, but did not significantly affect the outcome of escalated contests. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prior experiences modify the information that an individual has about its fighting ability but do not alter its actual fighting ability and that actual fighting ability becomes the more important influence on outcomes of escalated contests.



Jackson, W. M., and Winnegrad, R. L. (1988). Linearity in dominance hierarchy: a second look at the individual attribute model. Animal Behaviour, 36, 1237-1240.


James, W. T. (1955). Behaviors involved in expression of dominance among puppies. Psychological Reports, 1, 299-301.


Kaplan, J. R. (1981). A reexamination of dominance rank and hierarchy in primates. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 442-443.


Kaplan, J. R. (1981). A reexamination of dominance rank and hierarchy in primates (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 442-443.


Kaufmann, J. H. (1983). On the definitions and functions of dominance and territoriality. Biological Review, 58, 1-20.


Lott, D. F. (1981). Circumstances in which exact dominance rank may be important (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 443-444.


Maxim, P. E. (1981). Dominance: A useful dimension of social communication (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 444-445.


Mazur, A., & Booth, A. (1998). Testosterone and Dominance in Men. Behavioural and Brain Sciences at, 21, 353-363.


    * Abstract: In men, high levels of endogenous testosterone (T) seem to encourage behavior intended to dominate – to enhance one's status over – other people. Sometimes dominant behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to inflict harm on another person, but often dominance is expressed nonaggressively. Sometimes dominant behavior takes the form of antisocial behavior, including rebellion against authority and law breaking. Measurement of T at a single point in time, presumably indicative of a man's basal T level, predicts many of these dominant or antisocial behaviors. T not only affects behavior but also responds to it. The act of competing for dominant status affects male T levels in two ways. First, T rises in the face of a challenge, as if it were an anticipatory response to impending competition. Second, after the competition, T rises in winners and declines in losers. Thus, there is a reciprocity between T and dominance behavior, each affecting the other. We contrast a reciprocal model, in which T level is variable, acting as both a cause and effect of behavior, with a basal model, in which T level is assumed to be a persistent trait that influences behavior. An unusual data set on Air Force veterans, in which data were collected four times over a decade, enables us to compare the basal and reciprocal models as explanations for the relationship between T and divorce. We discuss sociological implications of these models.



Mech, D. L. (1999). Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77, 1196-1203. [available at http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/mammals/alstat/alstat.htm]


    * Abstract: The prevailing view of a wolf (Canis lupus) pack is that of a group of individuals ever vying for dominance but held in check by the "alpha" pair, the alpha male and alpha female. Most research on the social dynamics of wolf packs, however, has been conducted on non-natural assortments of captive wolves. Here I describe the wolf-pack social order as it occurs in nature, discuss the alpha concept and social dominance and submission, and present data on the precise relationships among members in free-living packs, based on a literature review and 13 summers of observations of wolves on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. I conclude that the typical wolf pack is a family, with the adult parents guiding the activities of the group in a division-of-labor system in which the female predominates primarily in such activities as pup care and defense and the male primarily during foraging and food-provisioning and the travels associated with them.



Mertens, P. A. (2004). The concept of dominance and the treatment of aggression in multidog homes: a comment on van Kerkhove's commentary. J Appl Anim Welf Sci, 7(4), 287-291; discussion 299-300.


Messier, F. (1985). Solitary living and extraterritorial movements of wolves in relation to social status and prey abundance. Canadian Journal ofr Zoology, 63, 239-245.


    * Abstract: The study examines three factors encouraging wolf (Canis lupus ) dispersal: prey abundnance, age of the animals, and their sex. Factors are related to the frequency at which wolves (n = 54) dissociated from their packs and (or) engaged in extraterritorial movements. A low prey base did not increase solitary living or excursion frequency of pups, did increase both traits in yearlings, and increased only solitary living among adults. Yearling and adult females were dissociated from their packs more frequently than males. Yearling females travelled more frequently outside their territories than did yearling males. On average, pup, yearling, and adult individuals made 1.1, 3.0, and 1.0 extraterritorial excursions per year, respectively. Such movements, mostly in winter, are interpreted as predispersal forays (failed dispersal), but also as an immediate action to survive through a temporary resource failure. Dispersal in wolves appears as a gradual and dynamic dissociation process extended over a period of a few months to a few years and beginning as early as 10 months of age.



Moore, A. J. (1990). The inheritance of social dominance, mating behaviour and attractiveness to mates in male Nauphoeta cinerea. Animal Behaviour, 39, 388-397.


Morse, D. H. (1974). Niche breadth as a function of social dominance. The American Naturalist, 108(964), 818-830.


    * Abstract: If one species is socially dominant to another, the subordinate usually narrows its niche when they occur together. When one species is dominant in some circumstances and a second in others, both narrow their niches when together. Subordinates usually have a larger fundamental niche than their dominants. The presence of dominants should result in selection for enlarged (or changed) fundamental niches by the subordinate species. Linear hierarchies of species should result in guilds whose members have different-sized fundamental and realized niches. Though large mobile species often have greater fundamental niches than small similar species, an inverse relationship between size and niche breadth usually occurs where clear dominance hierarchies exist, suggesting that social dominance has more than counteracted the effect of body size. The presence of dominants is a factor making conditions uncertain for subordinates. Limits to the niche breadth of dominants are in some cases directly set by physical factors but in others are unknown, though they may be set by one or more of a variety of biological factors. In some cases subordinates appear to avoid interactions with dominants. Unequivocal examples of dominance-mediated niche relationships are thus far confined to certain vertebrate and arthropod groups, although evidence available suggests that they are more widely spread.



Moynihan, M. H. (1998). The Social Regulation of Competition and Aggression in Animals. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.


Netto, W. J., va der Borg, J.A., and Slegers, J.F. (1992). The establishment of dominance relationships in a dog pack and its relevance for the man-dog relationship. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd, 117, 51S-52S.


O'Heare, J. (2003). Dominance Theory and Dogs (1st ed.). Ottawa: Dogpsych Publishing.


O'Heare, J. (2004). What is Social Dominance? Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Breyer State University, Ottawa, Canada.


Parker, G. A. (1974). Assessment strategy and the evolution of fighting behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 47, 223 - 243.


Pereira, R. A. S., and Prado, A.P.D. (2005). Recognition of competitive asymmetries reduces the severity of fighting in male Idarnes fig wasps. Animal Behaviour, 70, 249-256.


Petraitis, P. S. (1981). Dominance rankings and problems of intransive relationships (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 445-446.


Plutchik, R. (1981). Dominance: A key ethological/sociological concept (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 446.


Preuschoft, S., and van Schaik, Carol P. (2000). Dominance and Communication Conflict Management in Various Social Settings. In F. Aureli, and de Waal, Frans B.M. (Ed.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 77-105). Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.


Pulliainen, E. (1967). A contribution to the study of the social behavior of the wolf. American Zoologist, 7, 313-317.


    * Abstract: Three wolf cubs ([female] and [male male]) taken blind from their den were studied in captivity. When the cubs were 20–22 weeks old, their behavior was studied in the presence of individuals of two breeds of dogs (German Shepherd and Samoyed). The wolf cubs had seen no canine individuals before the experiments and vice versa. The sexes and ages of the German Shepherds (they resemble European forest wolves in appearance) tested were as follows: female (3 years), male (17 months), female (21 weeks; the same height as the wolf cubs) and female (12 weeks). The two female Samoyeds were 2 years old. All the tests were performed in the pen of the wolf cubs and filmed. The main results are as follows: (1). Investigative behavior was observed during all the tests carried out. (2). No aggressiveness was observed between the wolf cubs and those German Shepherds which were as tall as the wolf cubs or taller. By contrast, the wolf cubs tried to kill the smallest German Shepherd (12 weeks old). (3). Great aggressiveness was observed between the wolf cubs and the Samoyeds from the moment of confrontation. (4). No difference was observed in the movements and behavior patterns of these two species. (5). The results are discussed.



Pusey, A. E., & Packer, C. (1997). The ecology of relationships. In J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies (Eds.), Behavioural Ecology an evolutionary approach 4th. ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science.


Rabb, G. B. (1967). Social relationships in a group of captive wolves. American Zoologist, 7, 305-311.


    * Abstract: The social organization of a group of wolves in a large outdoor enclosure was followed through several breeding seasons. During the breeding season conflicts become more frequent and the social hierarchy obvious. The more dominant animals restrict courtship activities by inferior wolves of their own sex. However, apparently as a correlate of their position, two alpha males have shown less mating activity than other males. Mate preferences exhibited by animals of both sexes also limit the number of matings. The preferences appear related to the social hierarchy existing when an animal matures. Cultural transmission of social status is suggested by some changes in ranking of wolves raised in the woods at Brookfield. Temporary removal of the original alpha male and death of the original alpha female appear to have promoted changes in social order and an increase in actual mating combinations. The probable consanguineous nature of wolf groups and facets of the social behavior suggest that some form of group selection could be operative in the wild.



Rooney, N. J., and Bradshaw, J.W.S. (2003). Links between play and dominance and attachment dimensions of dog-human relationships. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 6(2), 67-94.


    * Abstract: It is often claimed that certain behavioral problems in domestic dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and caregiver (owner). In this study, we examine possible links between the types of games played and dimensions of the dog-owner relationship that are generally considered to affect such problems. Fifty dog-owner partnerships were filmed during 3-min play sessions in which the owner was allowed to choose the games played. All partnerships then undertook a 1-hr test designed to measure elements of behavior commonly ascribed to "dominance" and "attachment." Principal components analysis of the data produced 2 dominance-related factors (Amenability and Confident Interactivity) and 4 factors describing aspects of attachment (Nonspecific Attention Seeking, Preference for Owner, Preference for Unfamiliar Person, and Separation-Related Behavior). Amenability, in particular, varied significantly between breeds. In the study, we then compared types of games played to each of these factors. Dogs playing rough-and-tumble scored higher for Amenability and lower on Separation-Related Behavior than did dogs playing other types of games. Dogs playing tug-of-war and fetch scored high on Confident Interactivity. Winning or losing these games had no consistent effect on their test scores. If the dog started the majority of the games, the dog was significantly less amenable and more likely to exhibit aggression. The results suggest that how dogs play reflects general attributes of their temperament and relationship with their owner. This study provides no evidence that games play a major deterministic role on dominance dimensions of dog-human relationships, but the results suggest that playing games involving considerable body contact may affect attachment dimensions.



Rooney, N. J., Bradshaw, J. W. S., & Robinson, I. H. (2000). A comparison of dog-dog and dog-human play behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Sciences, 66, 235-248.


Rooney, N. J., Bradshaw, J. W. S., & Robinson, I. H. (2001). Do dogs respond to play signals given by humans? Animal Behavior, 61, 715-722.


    * Abstract: Play signals are known to function in the solicitation and maintenance of intraspecific play, but their role in interspecific play is relatively unstudied. We carried out two studies to examine interspecific signalling when humans play with domestic dogs, Canis familiaris. In the first, we recorded dog–owner play sessions on video to identify actions used by 21 dog owners to initiate play with their dogs. Thirty-five actions were each used by three or more owners. These included postures, vocalizations and physical contact with the dog. The actions varied greatly in their apparent success at instigating play which was, surprisingly, unrelated to the frequency with which they were used. We then did an experiment to determine the effect of composites of commonly used signals upon the behaviour of 20 Labrador retrievers. The performance of both ‘Bow’ and ‘Lunge’ by a human altered the subsequent behaviour of the dogs. Both signals caused increases in play, and Lunge produced significant increases in play bout frequency and mean bout duration. The efficiency of both these postural signals was enhanced when they were accompanied by play vocalizations. Thus, specific actions used by humans do communicate a playful context to dogs and can be described as interspecific play signals.



Rosenberg, R. H. a. E., Magnus. (1991). Contest behaviour in Weidemeyer's admiral butterfly, Limenitis weidemeyerii (Nymphalidae): the effect of size and residency. Animal Behavior, 42, 805-811.


Rowell, T. E. (1974). The concept of dominance. Behavioral Biology, 11, 131-154.


Schenkel, R. (1967). Submission: its features and function in the wolf and dog. American Zoologist, 7, 319-329.


    * Abstract: Submission in the wolf and dog is defined on the basis ot its motivation: submission is the effort of the inferior to attain friendly or harmonic social integration. Submission functions as an appeal or a contribution to social integration, but only if it meets a corresponding attitude in the superior. The form of submissive behavior in wolf and dog is ritualized and symbolized cub-behavior. Two main forms of submissive behavior occur in wolf and dog: active submission, derived from begging for milk or food, and passive submission, derived from the posture which the cub adopts when cleaned by its mother. The definition of submission is generally applicable to vertebrates living in groups based on intimacy and a social hierarchical order. The concept of submission as the role of the defeated in the terminal phase of fight with the function to inhibit automatically aggression in the superior should be dismissed. In vertebrates at least three types of conflict with different terminal phases occur: (1). Severe fight based on intolerance; ends with flight by the inferior or with his death. (2). Ritualized fight over a privilege; ends with the "giving-up-the-claim ritual" of the inferior, which automatically blocks the aggression of the superior. (3). Minor conflict in closed groups; settled by submissive behavior of the inferior. In closed vertebrate groups, intermediate forms between (1) and (3) occur, depending on the proportion between activated intimacy and intolerance.



Scott, J. P. (1948). Dominance and the frustration-aggression hypothesis. Physiological Zoology, 21, 31-39.


Seyfarth, R. M. (1981). Do monkeys rank each other? (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 447-448.


Sidanius, J., and Pratto Felicia. (1999). Social Dominance. Cambridge, United Kingdom: University of Cambridge.


Smuts, B. (1981). Dominance: An alternative view (commentary on Bernstein (1981)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 448-449.


Turner, G. F. (1994). The fighting tactics of male mouthbrooding cichlids: The effects of size and residency. Animal Behavior, 47, 655-662.


Uchida, Y., Dodman, N., DeNapoli, J., and Aronson, L. (1997). Characterization and treatment of 20 canine dominance aggression cases. J Vet Med Sci., 59(5), 397-399.


    * Abstract: This study was undertaken to characterize 20 cases of dominance aggression seen at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine and to investigate the efficacy of our non-confrontational behavior modification program for 8 weeks. The 20 cases included 18 pure breed and 2 mixed breed dogs. Thirteen of the dogs were male. The dogs' ages ranged from 7 to 84 months (mean 32.1 +/- 22.64 SE). There was no correlation between the severity of dominance aggression and the signalment of the dogs. At the conclusion of the eight week follow up period, 14 dogs (70%) were reported to have responded to the treatment to some degree. Six dogs did not demonstrate any noticeable reduction in aggressive behavior or became more aggressive. The results of the study is powerful evidence of the efficacy of the non-confrontational behavior modification program.



Uyeno, E. T., & White, M. (1967). Social Isolation and dominance behavior. Journal of Comparative and Psychiological Psychology, 63(1), 157-159.


van Kerkhove, W. (2004). A fresh look at the wolf-pack theory of companion-animal dog social behavior. J Appl Anim Welf Sci, 7(4), 279-285; discussion 299-300.


    * Abstract: A popular perspective on the social behavior of dogs in multiple-dog households sees the dogs' behavior as reflecting the sociobiological laws of the rigidly structured dominance hierarchy that has been described for wolf packs. This view suggests that aggression problems among dogs are natural expressions of conflict that arise whenever dominance status is in contention. One recommended solution has been for the owner to endorse and enforce a particular dominance hierarchy because, on the wolf pack model, aggression is minimized when the structure of the hierarchy is clear, strong, and stable. This article questions the validity of this perspective on 2 principal grounds. First, because it does not seem to occur in the wild, this article suggests the strong dominance hierarchy that has been described for wolves may be a by-product of captivity. If true, it implies that social behavior—even in wolves—may be a product more of environmental circumstances and contingencies than an instinctive directive. Second, because feral dogs do not exhibit the classic wolf-pack structure, the validity of the canid, social dominance hierarchy again comes into question. This article suggests that behavioral learning theory offers another perspective regarding the behavior of dogs and wolves in the wild or in captivity and offers an effective intervention for aggression problems.



van Schaik, C. P. a. A., Filippo. (2000). The Natural History of Valuable Relationships in Primates. In F. Aureli, and de Waal, Frans B.M. (Ed.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 307-333). Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.


Verbeek, P., Hartup, Willard W., and Collins W. Andrew. (2000). Conflict Management in Children and Adolescents. In F. Aureli, and de Waal, Frans B.M. (Ed.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 34-53). Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.


Verrell, P. A. (1986). Wrestling in red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens): resource value and contestant asymmetry determine contest duration and outcome. Animal Behavior, 34, 398-402.


Vessey, S. H. (1981). Dominance as control (commentary on Bernstein (1981). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 449.


Weibull, J. W. (1995). Evolutionary Game Theory. Massachusetts: MIT Press.


White, M. M., Neilson, J. C., Hart, B. L., and Cliff, K. D. (1999). Effects of clomipramine hydrochloride on dominance-related aggression in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 215(9), 1288-1291.


    * Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of the serotonergic drug clomipramine hydrochloride with those of placebo for treatment of dominance-related aggression in dogs. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. ANIMALS: 28 neutered dogs > 1 year old with dominance-related aggression. PROCEDURE: Dogs displaying > or =3 aggressive episodes/wk toward > or= 1 human family member in response to identifiable behavioral triggers were included in the study. Owners were instructed not to change patterns of interaction with their dogs during the study. After 2 weeks of baseline observations, dogs were treated for 6 weeks with clomipramine (1.5 mg/kg [0.7 mg/lb] of body weight, q 12 h; n = 15) or placebo (13). Responses to triggers were assigned the following aggression scores: no response, 0; growl or lip curl, 1; snap or bite, 2. Mean scores for responses to triggers were obtained during the 2-week pretreatment period (baseline) and during the first and second weeks, third and fourth weeks, and fifth and sixth weeks of treatment. At the end of the study, owners assigned a score designed to evaluate their overall perceived change in aggressiveness; this was referred to as the global score. RESULTS: Mean aggression scores decreased at the fifth and sixth week of treatment in both groups, compared with baseline scores. However, mean scores between groups were not different. Global scores, assigned by the owner, generally reflected changes in mean aggression scores. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Compared with placebo, clomipramine administered to dogs at the dosage recommended for treatment of separation anxiety did not reduce aggressiveness toward human family members.



Ydenberg, R. C., Giraldeau, L. A., and Falls, J. B. (1988). Neighbours, strangers, and asymmetric war of attrition. Animal Behavior, 36, 343-347.


Diabetic Detection Dogs

2013 Jul;36(7):e98-9. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2342. Can trained dogs detect a hypoglycemic scent in patients with type 1 diabetes?

 

Agility Injuries

2013 Jun 24. [Epub ahead of print] Epidemiology of Injury Among Handlers and Dogs Competing in the Sport of Agility.
Kerr ZY, Fields S, Comstock RD. Source Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. Abstract BACKGROUND:

Little is known about the epidemiology of dog sport-related injuries. This study examines injuries among handlers and dogs in the sport of dog agility. METHODS:

A cross-sectional pilot study captured data on demographics, exposures, and injury for a sample of agility handlers and dogs. Logistic regressions predicted odds of injury.  RESULTS:  Survey of 217 handlers and 431 dogs identified 31 handler injuries (1.55 training injuries per 1000 hours, 2.14 competition injuries per 1000 runs) and 38 dog injuries (1.74 training injuries per 1000 hours, 1.72 competition injuries per 1000 runs). Handlers most commonly injured knees (48.4%) and lower trunk (29.0%). Most common diagnoses were strains (51.6%) and sprains (32.3%). Obese handlers had increased odds of injury compared to normal weight handlers (OR=5.5, P<.001). Dogs most commonly injured front paws (23.7%) and shoulders (15.8%). Most common diagnoses were strains (44.7%) and cut/scrapes (21.1%). Injury was positively associated with dog's age (p<0.05). Handlers more commonly reported positive physical, emotional, and social motivations for participation than competitive. CONCLUSIONS: Despite many health benefits, dog agility poses a risk of injury to both handlers and dogs. Future research on specific mechanisms of injury should drive evidence-based injury prevention strategies.

Boldness

2013 Jun 15. pii: S1090-0233(13)00233-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.05.019., Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.
 Source Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: mjstarling@fastmail.com.au. Abstract

Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs.

 

Bulldog Health

Journal of applied physiology: http://jap.physiology.org/content/63/4/1344.abstract

The English bulldog: a natural model of sleep-disordered breathing - J. C. Hendricks, L. R. Kline, R. J. Kovalski, J. A. O’Brien, A. R. Morrison, and A. I. Pack

Journal of applied physiology: http://jap.physiology.org/content/63/4/1344.abstract

The Effects of Ondansetron on Sleep-Disordered Breathing in the English Bulldog

http://www.journalsleep.org/articles/240202.pdf

FROM PERFECTION TO PATHETIC PATHOLOGY IN 100 YEARS – A Literature Review of Evidence-Based Health and Welfare Concerns, with Special Reference to the English Bulldog – Gaia Research Institute

http://www.gaiaresearch.co.za/gaiabulldogreport.pdf

One of many bulldog specific references in an RSPCA report: Pedigree dog breeding in the UK: a major welfare concern?:

In some breeds, selection for very short or screw tails associated with misshapen tail vertebrae may lead to
the tail lying tightly against itself or the body and being prone to infection. Amputation is needed in the worst
cases (Bulldog Rescue and Rehoming 2008). The vertebral malformation needed for the screw tail may occasionally also affect other parts of the spine, causing kyphosis or scoliosis (abnormal curvature of the spine) and narrowing of the spinal cord. These in turn may lead to hind limb weakness or paralysis, urinary or faecal incontinence, and/or spinal pain (Braund 2003).

http://www.rspca.org.uk/ImageLocator/LocateAsset?asset=document&assetId=1232712491490&mode=prd

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare – Genetic welfare problems of companion animals

Breed: English Bulldog

Condition: Brachycephalic Ocular Syndrome

Related terms: brachycephalic ocular disease, exophthalmos, exposure keratopathy, exposure keratopathy syndrome, keratitis syndrome, pigmentary keratisis, macropalpebral fissure syndrome, medial canthus syndrome

Outline: Because of their extreme brachycephalic (short) head shape and its consequences on the anatomy (shape and positioning) of the eyes and surrounding tissues, English bulldogs are prone to several eye conditions that tend to lead to chronic irritation and pain. It seems likely that prevalence of these diseases will be lower in those with less extremely abnormal head shapes (compared with more typical canine head shape).

Also: Pulmonic Stenosis

Breed: English Bulldog

Condition: Pulmonic Stenosis

Related terms: Pulmonary valve stenosis

Outline: Pulmonic stenosis is a congenital narrowness or constriction of the outflow from the right side of the heart. It occurs much more commonly in the English bulldog than on average for dogs and is believed to have a genetic basis, probably involving several genes. If the constriction is mild there may be no welfare effects but when more severe it can lead to right-side heart failure causing chronic malaise.

Also:

Dystocia due to Foetal-Pelvic Disproportion

Breed: English Bulldog

Condition: Distocia due to Foetal-Pelvic Disproportion

Related terms: foetal-maternal disproportion, dorso-ventrally flattened pelvic canal

Outline: English bulldogs have difficulties giving birth. This is because there is commonly a serious mismatch between the size of English bulldogs pups and the birth canal of their mothers, caused by changes in body shape (of both puppy and mother) due to selection for particular features. This means that unassisted birth is not possible and, unless a caesarean section is carried out, the birth is likely to end in the painful death of the mother.

Report from the Kennel Club/ British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee Summary results of the Purebred Dog Health Survey for British Bulldogs

http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/download/1527/hsbulldog.pdf

Breed Predispositions to Disease in Dogs and Cats

Alex Gough MA VetMB CertSAM MRCVS & Alison Thomas BVSc CertSAM MRCVS

BULLDOG (ENGLISH)

Cardiovascular conditionsVentricular septal defect• Marked risk in this breed (relative risk 5.0) • No sex predilection• Not known to be inherited in this breed

Tetralogy of Fallot

• Uncommon • Congenital

Aortic stenosis

• Common congenital disease

• Relative risk > 5.0

• No sex predilection

• Inheritance possibly autosomal dominant with modifying genes, or
polygenic

Pulmonic stenosis

• Third most frequent cause of canine congen- ital heart disease

• May be polygenic mode of inheritance

• Relative risk 12.9

• May be associated anomalous coronary artery development in this breed

Dermatological conditions

Muzzle folliculitis and furunculosis

• Possible genetic susceptibility

Pododermatitis

• Males predisposed

• Front feet more commonly affected

Generalised demodicosis

• Bulldogs are in the ten breeds at highest statistical risk of this
disease in the Cornell, USA, population

Hyperoestrogenism

• Rare

• Affects older, intact females

Canine follicular dysplasia

• A marked predilection in this breed implies a genetic basis for this
group of diseases

Seasonal flank alopecia

• Tends to occur in spring or autumn

Primary lymphoedema

• No apparent sex predisposition • Only seen in certain populations

Intertrigo

• May occur due to intentional breeding for excessive skin folding

Skin tumours

• See under Neoplastic conditions

Endocrine diseases

Hypothyroidism

• Reported in some texts to be at increased risk • Often middle-aged
(2–6 years)

Gastrointestinal conditions

Cleft palate

• Congenital disorder with inheritance sus- pected in this breed

Musculoskeletal conditions

Ununited anconeal process

• A true fracture of the process occurs in this breed

Congenital elbow luxation

Type II luxation occurs in this breed (prox- imal radius displaced
caudolaterally)

Usually 4–5 months old at presentationHemivertebrae• Mode of
inheritance not known

Sacrocaudal dysgenesis

• Congenital

• See also under Neurological conditions

Brachyury

Hip dysplasia

• Although not ranked in the top 20 in the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scheme,
due to small numbers sampled, the breed mean score was 41

Neoplastic conditions

Mast cell tumours

Possible breed predisposition

May be seen at any age (from 4 monthsonwards), but usually seen in
older animalsPrimary brain tumour• See under Neurological
conditionsLymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma)

• Higher incidence noted in this breed

• Most cases are seen in middle-aged dogs (mean 6 –7 years)

Neurological conditions

Congenital deafness

• Signs seen from birth

Hydrocephalus

• Congenital

• Relatively common

• Onset of clinical signs: <3 months

Hemivertebrae

• Congenital

• Occasionally seen

Spina bifida (and myelodysplasia)

• Congenital

Sacrocaudal dysgenesis

• Congenital

• Occasionally reported

Stenosis of the vertebral canal

• Congenital

Primary brain tumour

• Higher incidence noted in this breed • Older dogs affected (mean 9–10
years)

 


Conservation Dogs

Parker, M. 2011. Wildlife Detection Dogs. Wildlife Professional. 47-49.

Duggan, J.M., E.J. Heske, R.L. Schooley, A. Hurt, A. Whitelaw. 2011. Comparing Detection Dog and Live Trapping Surveys for a Cryptic Rodent. Journal of Wildlife Management. 75(5): 1029-1217

Dahlgren, D.K., R.D. Elmore, D.A. Smith, A. Hurt, E.B. Arnett, and J.W. Connelly. In press. Use of dogs in wildlife research and management. In: Silvy, N. J. (ed), Wildlife techniques manual: research. (Volume I).  John Hopkins University Press.

Reed, S.E., A.L. Bidlack, A. Hurt, and W.M. Getz. 2010. Detection Distance and Environmental Factors in Conservation Detection Dog Surveys. Journal of Wildlife Management 75(1): 243-251.

Ralls, K., S. Sharma, D.A. Smith, S. Bremner-Harrison, B. L. Cypher, and J.E. Maldonado. 2010. Changes in Kit Fox Defecation Patterns During the Reproductive Season: Implications for Noninvasive Surveys. Journal of Wildlife Management 74(7):1457-1462.

Parker, M. and A. Hurt. 2010. Canine Detection Teams and Conservation. In: K.H. Redford (ed), 2010-2011 State of the Wild: A Global Portrait (pp. 183-188). Island Press.

Bozarth, C.A., Y.R. Alva-Campbell, K. Ralls, T.R. Henry, D.A. Smith, M. F. Westphal, and J.E. Maldonado.2010. An efficient noninvasive method for discriminating among faeces of sympatric North American canids. Conservation Genetics Resources 2:173-175. DOI 10.1007/s12686-010-9215-4

Hurt, A. and D.A. Smith. 2009. Conservation Dogs. In: Helton, W.S. (ed.), Canine Ergonomics: The Science of Working Dogs (pp. 175-194). CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Mackay, P., D.A. Smith, R. Long, and M. Parker. 2008. Scat Detection Dogs. In: Long, R., P. Mackay, J. Ray and W. Zielinski (eds.), Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores (pp. 183-222). Island Press.

Reindl-Thompson, S.A., J. Shivik, A. Whitelaw, A. Hurt, K. Higgins. 2006.
Efficacy of Scent Dogs in Detecting Black-Footed Ferrets at a Reintroduction Site in South Dakota.Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(5):1435–1439

Smith, D. A., K. Ralls, B. L. Cypher, H. O. Clark, Jr., P. A. Kelly, D. F. Williams, and J. E. Maldonado. 2006 a.Relative abundance of endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) based on scat-detection dog surveys. Southwestern Naturalist 51:210-219

Smith, D. A., K. Ralls, A. Hurt, B. Adams, M. Parker, and J. E. Maldonado. 2006 b.
Assessing reliability of microsatellite genotypes from kit fox fecal samples using genetic and GIS analyses. Molecular Ecology 15:387-406

Smith, D. A., K. Ralls, B. L. Cypher, and J. E. Maldonado. 2005. Assessment of scat-detection dog surveys to determine kit fox distribution. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:897-904

Ralls, K. and D.A. Smith. 2004. Latrine use by San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and coyotes (Canis latrans).Western North American Naturalist 64:544-547

Smith, D., K. Ralls, A. Hurt, B. Adams, M. Parker, B. Davenport, M.C. Smith, and J.E. Maldonado. 2003. Detection and accuracy rates of dogs trained to find scats of San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). Animal Conservation 6:339-346

Smith D., K. Ralls, B. Davenport, B. Adams, and J.E. Maldonado. 2001. Canine assistants for conservationists. Science 291:435

Hurt A., B. Davenport and E. Greene. 2000.Training dogs to distinguish between black bear (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) feces. University of Montana Under-Graduate Biology Journal.

Health Effects of Dogs

Allergies and Kids

Does Dog or Cat Exposure Protect Against Respiratory Tract Infections During the First Year of Life? Bergroth E et al. Respiratory tract illnesses during the first year of life: Effect of dog and cat contacts. Pediatrics 2012 Jul 9; [e-pub ahead of print].  - Upper respiratory tract infections are common during the first year of life, and numerous studies have identified factors that either increase (e.g., day care attendance) or decrease (e.g., breast-feeding) risk. The role of animal exposure in early respiratory tract infections is less certain. In this study, researchers examined the effect of dog and cat contact on respiratory symptoms in a prospective birth cohort of 397 children in Finland.The children were followed for 1 year, and parents completed weekly diary questionnaires about symptoms, antibiotic use, and amount of contact with dogs or cats at home. In univariate analysis of 17,124 diary weeks, children who were exposed to dogs or cats at home had significantly fewer weeks with cough, rhinitis, and otitis symptoms and fewer courses of antibiotics than children who had no contact. In adjusted multivariate analysis, children who had contact with a dog had significantly more healthy weeks (adjusted odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.52; P<0.001) and used fewer antibiotics (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52–0.96; P=0.03) than children without dogs at home. Cats did not have a significant protective effect in multivariate analysis.Conclusion:  Dog contact was more protective than cat contact with a modest benefit but the study did not account for day care attendance and leaves the issue unresolved - it's probably safe to conclude that as far as respiratory infections are concerned, having a dog or cat at home at least does no major harm.— Peggy Sue Weintrub, MDPublished in Journal Watch Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine July 25, 2012

Recognizing Medical Conditions

Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Wells DL, Lawson SW, Siriwardena AN. Canine responses to hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:12351241.) In that study 212 patients with Type I (insulin-requiring) diabetes who were dog owners were surveyed. One in
every three individuals noted that their pet dog had at least 10 episodes where the dog's behavior changed in relation to low blood sugar, often before the patients were aware their blood sugars were starting to get dangerously low. Typically, dogs' behavior changes increased attention from their owner, including vocalizing, licking, nuzzling, jumping onto the person, and intent staring.

Therapy Dogs Today by Kris Butler

Animal-assisted​ Interventions for Individuals with Autism by Merope Pavlides

The Golden Bridge: A Guide to Assistance Dogs for Children Challenged By Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities by Patty Dobbs Gross

Pet Ownership as a Protective Factor Supporting the Emotional Well-Being of Cancer Patients and Their Family Members. Victoria H. Raveis, et al. 

Pets in the American Family. Kris Bulcroft.

The Positive Influence of Dogs on Children in Divorce Crises from the Mother's Perspective and of the Child-Dog Relationship from the Child's Perspective. Tanja Hoff, Dipl-Psych., Reinhold Bergler, Prof. Dr. 

Pets as Sources of Support for Mothers, Fathers and Young Children. Gail F. Melson, Rona Schwartz, and Alan Beck. 

The Relationship Between Companion Animals, Caregivers, and Family Functioning. S.L. Triebenbacher, C.C. Wilson, and G. Fuller. 

Pet Ownership, Type of Pet and Socio-emotional Development of School Children. Vlasta Vizek Vidovic, Vesna Vlahovic Stetic and Denis Bratko. Originally published in Anthrozoos, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999, pps 211-217.

Attitudes Toward Animals Among Norwegian Adolescents. by Tore Bjerke, et al. Eastern Norway Research Institute, Lillehammer, Norway.Originally published in Anthrozoos, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998, 79-86.Children’s Attitudes About the Humane Treatment of Animals and Empathy: One Year Follow Up.. by Frank Ascione and Claudia Weber ,1996.
 

Enhancing Children's Attitudes About the Humane Treatment of Animals: Generalization to Human-directed Empathy, by Frank Ascione, 1992 [Download figures: Figure 1

Fostering Inter-Connectedness with Animals and Nature: The Developmental Benefits for Children. Gail Melson. People, Animals, Environment, Fall 1990, pp. 15-17.

The Role of Pets in Enhancing Human Well-Being: Effects on Child Development. by Nienke Endenburg and Ben Baarda. [Reprinted from The Waltham Book of Human-Animal Interactions: Benefits and Responsibilities. Courtesy of Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition.]

Children’s Attitudes About the Humane Treatment of Animals and Empathy: One Year Follow Up.. by Frank Ascione and Claudia Weber

Companion Animals and Other Factors Affecting Young Children’s Development, by Robert H. Poresky


ABSTRACTS


*Learning Emotion Recognition From Canines? Two For The Road
. Stetina, Birgit U.; Turner, Karoline; Burger, Eva; Glenk, Lisa M.; McElheney, Julia C.; Handlos, Ursula; Kothgassner, Oswald D. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2011 Mar-Apr; 6(2): 108-114.

*Improvement In Children's Humaneness Toward Nonhuman Animals Through A Project Of Educational Anthrozoology. Mariti, Chiara; Papi, Francesca; Mengoli, Manuel; Moretti, Graziana; Martelli, Franco; Gazzano, Angelo. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: 2011 Jan-Feb; 6(1): 12-20.


Teachers' Experiences With Humane Education And Animals In The Elementary Classroom: Implications For Empathy Development
. Daly, Beth; Suggs, Suzanne. Journal of Moral Education. 2010 Mar; 39(1): 101-112.

Effect Of Service Dogs On Salivary Cortisol Secretion In Autistic Children. Viau, Robert; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fecteau, Stéphanie; Champagne, Noël; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Lupien, Sonia. Psychoneuroendocrinology. Sep 2010; 35(8):1187-1193.

The Significance Of Human-Animal Relationships As Modulators Of Trauma Effects In Children: A Developmental Neurobiological Perspective. Yorke, Jan. Early Child Development and Care. 2010 Jun; 180(5): 559-570.

Effects Of Having Pets At Home On Children's Attitudes Toward Popular And Unpopular Animals. Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale. Anthrozöos. 2010 Mar; 23(1): 21-35.

Children In The Living World: Why Animals Matter For Children's Development. Melson, Gail F. p.147-154. IN: Fogel, Alan; King, Barbara J.; Shanker, Stuart G. Human development in the twenty-first century: visionary ideas from systems scientists. New York : Cambridge University Press, c2008. x, 259 p. ; 24 cm.

Social and Individual Components of Animal Contact in Preschool Children. Wedl, M.; Kotrschal, K. Anthrozoös, 2009 Dec; 22(4): 383-396.

Kids, Dogs, and the Occupation of Literacy. Scott, Keri; Haseman, Jean; Hammetter, Rona OT Practice, 2005 Feb 21; 10(3): 16-20.

Is Counseling Going to the Dogs? An Exploratory Study Related to the Inclusion of an Animal in Group Counseling with Adolescents. Lange, Amber M; Cox, Jane A.; Bernert, Donna J; Jenkins, Christie D. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 2(2) 2006: 17-31.

Helping Hounds: Does Animal assisted Therapy Improve the Rehabilitation Process? Martindale, Raschelle; Love, Sarah; Abbott, Julie, Bourke, Anne. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2008 Apr; 50: Supplement 113: 12-13.

Heart Rate Response to Therapeutic Riding in Children with Cerebral Palsy: An Exploratory Study. Dirienzo, Lauren N; Dirienzo, Lee T; Baceski [!], Deborah A. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 2007 Summer; 19(2): 160-165

The Effect of Hippotherapy on Functional Outcomes for Children with Disabilities: A Pilot Study. Murphy, Deirdra; Kahn-D'Angelo, Linda; Gleason, James. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2008 Fall; 20(3): 264-270.

Cisco's Kids: A Pet Assisted Therapy Behavioral Intervention Program. Cournoyer, Gary P; Uttley, Clarissa. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2007; 7(3): 117-126.

An Investigation of Human-Animal Interactions and Empathy as Related to Pet Preference, Ownership, Attachment, and Attitudes in Children. Daly, B., Morton L. L. Anthrozoös, 19(2) 2006:113-27. 

Does Dog or Cat Ownership Lead to Increased Gastroenteritis in Young Children in South Australia? Heyworth, J. S., Cutt, H., Glonek, G. Epidemiology and Infection, 134 2006:926-34.

Capitalizing on the Human-Animal Bond to Teach Ethics to youth. Rusk, C. P., Brubaker, K. M., Balschweid, M. A., Pajor, E. A. New Directions for Youth Development, no.108, 2005 Winter: 45-56.

The Effect of Pet Ownership on the Risk of Allergic Sensitization and Bronchial asthma. Liccardi, G., D’Amato, G., D’Amato, L., Salzillo, A., Piccolo, A., De Napoli, I., Dente, B., Cazzola, M. Respiratory Medicine, 99(2) 2005 Feb: 227-33.

Children, Pets and Good Health: Reflections on Using an Animal Focused Story-Making Method Within War Trauma Therapy for Children and Young People. Dawson. S.; conference presentation. The SCAS Journal, 2004 Spring; 16(1):12-6.

The Role of Pet Ownership as a Possible Buffer Variable in Traumatic Experience, by L. Arambasic and G. Kerestes.

The Role of Companion Animals in Human Development, by G.F. Melson.

Impact of Keeping Pets at Home Upon the Social Development of Children, by Zuzanna Toeplitz.

The Supportive Role of Pets in the Childhood of Sexual Abuse Survivors, by S.B. Barker, et al.

Relationships Between Young People with Autism and Their Pets, by J. McNicholas and G.M. Collis.

The Relationship Between Attachment to Companion Animals and Self-Concept: A Developmental Perspective, by S.L. Triebenbacher.

Effects of Pet Ownership on the Well-Being of Adolescents with Few Family Resources, by N. M. Bodmer.

Animals as Means of Emotional Support and Companionship for Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old, by Anne Salomon.


BIBLIOGRAPHIES


Animals and Children Bibliography

Key References on Human-Animal Interactions for Children 

ARTICLES


Physiological Effects of the Use of a Companion Animal Dog as a Cue to Relaxation in Diagnosed Hypertensives. Sue Todd Schuelke, et al. Reprinted with Permission from The Latham Letter, Winter 1991/92, [The Latham Foundation, Latham Plaza Building, Clement and Schiller Street, Alameda, CA 9450l.]

Does Pet Ownership Reduce Your Risk for Heart Disease? Originally published in InterActions, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1992, pp 12-13.

What You Already Knew - Fluffy & Fido Are Good for You. Maria Kale. Originally published in InterActions, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1992.

The Role of Pets in Enhancing Human Well-Being: Physiological Effects. Erika Friedmann [Reprinted from The Waltham Book of Human-Animal Interactions: Benefits and Responsibilities. Courtesy of Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition.

Psychological Health in a Population of Australian Cat Owners. Cheryl M. Straede and G. Richard Gates. Originally published in Anthrozoos, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1993, pps 30-41.

Evidence for Long Term Effects of Pet Ownership on Human Health. J.A. Serpell.


ABSTRACTS


*An Examination Of The Potential Role Of Pet Ownership, Human Social Support And Pet Attachment In The Psychological Health Of Individuals Living Alone. Duvall Antonacopoulos, Nikolina M.; Pychyl, Timothy A. Anthrozoös. 2010 Mar; 23(1): 37-54.

Homeless Women's Voices On Incorporating Companion Animals Into Shelter Services. Labrecque, Jennifer; Walsh, Christine A. Anthrozoös. 2011 Mar; 24(1): 79-95.

Our New Children: The Surrogate Role of Companion Animals in Women’s Lives. Turner, W.G. Qualitative Report, 6(1) 2001 Mar: (8 pages).

Reasons for Companion Animal Guardianship (Pet Ownership) From Two Populations. Staats, S.; Wallace, H.; Anderson, T. Society & Animals, 2008; 16(3): 279-291.

Young Adults’ Attachment to Pet Dogs: Findings From Open-Ended Methods. Kurdek, L.A. Anthrozoös, 2009 Dec; 22(4): 359-369.

Dog Ownership, Walking Behavior, and Maintained Mobility in Late Life. Thorpe, R.J, Jr.; Simonsick, E.M.; Brach, J.S.; Ayonayon, H.;Satterfield, S.; Harris, T.B.; Garcia, M.; Kritchevsky, S. B. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2006 Sep; 54(9): 1419-1424.

Associations Between Pet Ownership and Self-Reported Health Status in People Suffering From Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Wells, D.L. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 2009 Apr; 15(4): 407-413.

Are Pets a Source of Support or Added Burden for Married Couples Facing Dementia? Connell, C.M.; Janevic, M.R.; Solway, E.; McLaughlin, S.J. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 2007 Nov; 26(5): 472-485.

Another Breed of “Service” Animals: STARS Study Findings About Pet Ownership and Recovery from Serious Mental Illness. Wisdom, J.P.; Saedi, G. A.; Green, Carla A. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2009 Jul; 79(3): 430-436

Changes in Automatic Nervous Activity Before and After Horse Trekking Measured by Heart Rate Variability and Salivary Amylase Activity, Akihiro Matsuura, Nozomi Nagai, Aki Funatsu, Atusi Yamazaki, Koichi Hodate. Department of Animal Science, Kitasato University, Japan.[Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008]

Romantic Partners and Four-Legged Friends: An Extension of Attachment Theory to Relationships with Pets. Beck, L., Madresh, E. A., Anthrozoos, 21 (1) 2008: 43-56.
 
Dogs: A Potential Public Health Role to Improve Health and Well-Being . Upton, V. The SCAS Journal, 2005 Autumn; 17(3):2-5. 

Relation Between Pet Ownership and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Healed Myocardial Infarcts . Friedmann, E., Thomas S.A., Stein, P.K., Kleiger, R.E. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Mar 15; 91(6):718-21.

Lung Transplant Recipients Holding Companion Animals: Impact on Physical Health and Quality of LIfe, S. Irani, C. Mahler, L. Goetzmann, EW Russi, and A. Boehler - New! on July 12, 2006

Pet Attachment and Personality Type, D. Bagley and V. Gonsman - New! on July 12, 2006

Effect of Petting a Dog on Immune System Function, C.J. Charnetski; S. Riggers; F.X. Brennan - New! on July 31, 2006

Spouses and Cats and Their Effects on Human Mood, D. Turner, G. Rieger, and L. Gygax - New! on July 12, 2006

The Role of Pets in the Support Networks of People Recovering from Breast Cancer. June McNicholas, Glyn M. Collis, Chris Kent & Michelle Rogers. New! 

Dog Ownership and Control of Borderline Hypertension: A Controlled Randomized Trial. K. Allen. 

Pet Ownership, But Not ACE Inhibitor Therapy Blunts Home Blood Pressure Response to Mental Stress. K. Allen, J.L. Izzo, and B.E. Shykoff.

Dogs as Catalysts for Social Interactions: Robustness of the Effect. J. McNicholas and G.M. Collis.

AIDS Diagnosis and Depression in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: The Ameliorating Impact of Pet Ownership. J.M. Siegel, F.J. Angulo, R. Detels, J. Wesch, and A. Mullen.
Social Support and Resting Blood Pressure Among Young and Elderly Women: The Moderating Role of Pet Dogs and Cats. K. Allen, A. Gross, and J. Izzo, Jr. 

Anger and Hostility Among Married Couples: Pet Dogs as Moderators of Cardiovascular Reactivity Stress. K. Allen and J. Blascovich.

Animals and Cardiovascular Health, G.L. Jennings.

Loneliness and Pet Ownership Among Single Women. R.L. Zasloff and A.H. Kidd

Presence of Human Friends and Pet Dogs as Moderators of Autonomic Responses to Stress in Women. K. Allen, J. Blascovich, J. Tomaka, and R. Kelsey.

Companion Animals as Self Objects. Brown, S. Anthrozoos, 20 (4) 2007: 329-343.

Parrots as Therapy for Psychiatric Patients. Haw, C. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31(4) 2007 Apr:154-5.

Animal-Assisted Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease. Wolff, A. I., Frishman, W. H. Seminars in Integrative Medicine, 2(4) 2004 Dec: 131-4.

The Pet Connection: Pets as a Conduit for Social Capital? Wood, L. J., Giles-Corti, G., Bulsara, M., Social Science & Medicine 61(6) 2005 ep: 1159-73.

Understanding Dog Owners’ Increased Levels of Physical Activity: Results from RESIDE. Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Bull, Fiona. American Journal of Public Health, 2008 Jan; 98(1): 66-69.

Pet Dogs Benefit Owners’ Health: A ‘Natural Experiment’ in China. Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard. Social Indicators Research, 2008; 84: 481-493.

In the Company of Wolves: The Physical, Social, and Psychological Benefits of Dog Ownership. Knight, Sarah; Edwards, Victoria. [Journal of Aging and Health, 2008 Jun; 20(4): 437-455. Correspondence to Knight, Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, King Henry Building, King Henry I Street, Portsmouth, PO1 2DY, UK; sarah.knight@port.ac.uk.



ARTICLES


Companion Animals in the lives of Persons with Alzheimer's Disease. Mara M. Baun, D.N.Sc., FAAN University of Texas-Houston School of Nursing

For Seniors: Pets Are Just Plain Healthy. By Ed Kane, PhD

The Role of Pets in Enhancing Human Well-Being: Effects for Older People. Lynette A. Hart
[Download figures: Figure 3.1 (23K, GIF), Figure 3.2 (16K, GIF), Figure 3.3 (23K, GIF), Figure 3.4 (29K, GIF), Figure 3.5 (26K, GIF), Figure 3.7 (27K, GIF).] [Reprinted from The Waltham Book of Human-Animal Interactions: Benefits and Responsibilities. Courtesy of Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition.] 

Effects of Watching Aquariums on Elders' Stress. Mary M. DeSchriver and Carol Cutler Riddick

Stressful Life Events and Use of Physician Services Among the Elderly. Judith M. Siegel

Pet Ownership and Attachment as Supportive Factors in the Health of the Elderly. Thomas F. Garrity, et al


ABSTRACTS

*AAA and AAT Projects In A Geriatric Institute: Effects On The Patients’ Welfare. Michelazzi, M.; Besana, F.; Santarato, D.; Diudici, P.; Verga, M. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2007 May-Jun; 2(3): 83-83.

*Companions In Presence: Animal Assistants And Eldercare. Koppel, Michael S. Pastoral Psychology. 2011 Feb; 60(1): 107-115.

*A Comparison Of Animal-Assisted Therapy And Animal-Assisted Activities With Dogs In Swedish Residential Care. Nord, C. Gerontologist. 2010 Oct; 50: Supplement 1: 32-32.

*Effect Of Animal-Assisted Therapy On Engagement Of Rural Nursing Home Residents. Martindale, Brianne P. American Journal of Recreation Therapy. 2008 Fall; 7(4): 45-53.

Companion Animals For Elderly Women: The Importance Of Attachment. Chur-Hansen, Anna; Winefield, Helen Russell; Beckwith, Melinda. Qualitative Research in Psychology. Oct 2009; 6(4): 281-293.

Pets And Elderly People: Single Company Or Something Else? Rodrigo Claverol, M. D.; Ortega Bravo, M.; Sarmiento Cruz, M.; Rodrigo Claverol, E.; Capdevila Andreu, M.; Nadal Braque, N. Swiss Medical Weekly. 2009 Aug 22; 139(3-4): Supplementum 175: 120S-120S.

Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health And Self-Esteem Captured From Their Lived Experiences With Pet Companions. de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E. Educational Gerontology. 2009 Nov; 35(11): 963-989.

The Influence Of Companion Animals On The Psychological Health Of Older Adults. May, Cybele. Australian Veterinary Practitioner. 2007; 37 (1): 14-16,18-19.

Walking For Therapy With Man's Best Friend. Cangelosi, Pamela R.; Sorrell, Jeanne M. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 2010 Mar; 48(3): 19-22.

Effect Of Dog-Walking On Autonomic Nervous Activity In Senior Citizens. Motooka M, Koike H, Yokoyama T, Kennedy NL. Medical journal of Australia. 2006 Jan 16; 184(2): 60-63.

Pet Encounters: Animal-assisted Therapy for Frail Older Adults. Buettner, Linda L. Activities Directors' Quarterly for Alzheimer's & Other Dementia Patients, 2008 Winter; 9(1): 29-45.

Dog Visitation Therapy in Dementia Care: A Literature Review. Williams, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Rhiannon. Nursing Older People. 2008 Oct; 20(8): 31-35.

Animal-assisted Therapy As a Nondrug Approach to Pain and Depression for Older Adults with Dementia. Richeson, Nancy E. Activities Directors' Quarterly for Alzheimer's and Other Dementia Patients, 8(1) 2007 Winter: 3-6.

Association with Companion Animals and the Expression of Noncognitive Symptoms in Alzheimer's Patients. Fritz, C.L.; Farver, T.B., Kass, P.H., Hart, L.The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, July 1995, 183 (7)

Pets and the Health of Older People. J. McNicholas, G. M. Collis 

Influence of Companion Animals on the Physical and Psychological Health of Older People: An Analysis of a One-Year Longitudinal Study. P. Raina, D. Waltner-Toews, B. Bonnett, C. Woodward, and T. Abernathy. 

Relationship Between Pet Ownership and Healthcare Use Among Seniors. P. Raina, B. Bonnett, and D. Waltner-Toews.

Pet Ownership May be a Factor in Improved Health of the Elderly. D. Dembicki and J. Anderson.

The Impact of Pet Ownership on the Functional Transitions Among Elderly. P Raina, D. Waltner-Toews, and B. Bonnett. 

The Relationship of Loneliness and Stress to Human-Animal Attachment in the Elderly. C. Keil and B. Barba.

The Role of Pet Dogs in Casual Conversations of Elderly Adults. J. Rogers, L.A. Hart, and R.P. Boltz.

The Importance of Companion Animal Relationships in the Lives of Older People. McColgan, G., Schofield, I. Nursing Older People, 19(1) 2007 Feb: 21-3. 

The Mediating Effect of Pet Attachment Support Between Loneliness and General Health in Older Females Living in the Community. Krause-Parello, Cheryl A. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2008 Jan-Mar; 25(1): 1-14.




BOOKS


*Animal-Assisted Therapy, by Donald Altschiller. ISBN 9780313357206

*Literature Review and Manual: Animal-Assisted Therapy, Unpublished Thesis, by Mary Louise Cole. 2009.

*The Extraordinary Spirit Of Green Chimneys: Connecting Children And Animals To Create Hope, by Samuel B. Ross, Jr. ISBN 9781557535801

*Healing Companions: Ordinary Dogs And Their Extraordinary Power To Transform Lives. Miller, Jane. ISBN 9781601630933

*TAPfer: Therapeutische Arbeit mit dem Pferd (Therapeutic Work with Horses): A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational Riding/Vaulting for Children with Autistic Disorders; Final Report, by Pickartz, A., Schulz, M., Gultom-Happe, T. 2006.

101 Creative Ideas For Animal Assisted Therapy: Interventions For AAT Teams And Working Professionals, by Stacy Grover. ISBN 9780982575581

Handbook On Animal-Assisted Therapy: Theoretical Foundations And Guidelines For Practice. 3rd Ed. by Aubrey H Fine. ISBN 9780123814531

Animal Assisted Therapy in Counseling, by Cynthia K. Chandler

Canines in the Classroom, Raising Humane Children through Interactions with Animals, by Michelle A. Rivera A Gift to Share- The Story of Moritz, by Barry J. Schieber

Reading Education Assistance Dogs, A Program of Intermountain Therapy Animals (Available from Intermountain Therapy Animals)

Book Review: Freckles, The Mystery of the Little White Dog in the Desert, by Paul M. Howey.

Between Pets and People: The Importance of Animal Companionship by Alan M. Beck, et al. 1996.

Book Review: Happy Dog, How Busy People Care for Their Dogs, A Stress-Free Guide for All Dog Owners By Arden Moore & Lowell Ackerman, D.V.M. Forward by Marty Becker, D.V.M.

Book Review: Train Your Dog, Change Your Life: An Interactive Training Program for Individuals, Families and Their Dogs by Maureen Ross, M.A., N.C.C. and Gary Ross, M.E.

The Thinking Dog: Crossover to Clicker Training (Dogwise Training Manual; by Gail Fisher. 1998.
How to Teach Your Old Dog New Tricks by Ted Baer. 1991

On Target by Gary Wilkes. Video. 55 mins. 1993.

 

GENERAL


*Animal-Assisted Therapy For Inpatients: Tapping The Unique Healing Power Of The Human-Animal Bond. Horowitz, Sala. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2010 Dec; 16 (6): 339-343.

*Mainstreaming Animal-Assisted Therapy. Palley, Lori S.; O'Rourke, P. Pearl; Niemi, Steven M. ILAR Journal. 2010; 51(3): 199-207.

*The Human-Canine Bond: New Learnings And A Changing Rationality From A Psychoanalytic Perspective. Gavriele-Gold, Joel. Psychoanalytic Review. 2011 Feb; 98(1): 91-105.

The Human-Companion Animal Bond: How Humans Benefit. Friedmann, Erika; Son, Heesook. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 2009 Mar; 39(2): 293-326

The Human-Animal Bond In Healthcare. Buettner, Linda; Gibson, Karen. Beginnings (American Holistic Nurses Assocation). 2009 Summer; 29(3): 6-8.

Paws For Thought: Involving Animals In Care. Heathcote, Julie. Nursing & Residential Care, 2010 Mar; 12(3):145-148.

A Look At The Ecotherapy Research Evidence. Chalquist, Craig. Ecopsychology. 2009 Jun; 1(2): 64-74.

Exploratory Study Of Stress-Buffering Response Patterns From Interaction With A Therapy Dog. Barker, Sandra B.; Knisely, Janet S.; McCain, Nancy L.; Schubert, Christine M.; Pandurangi, Anand K. Anthrozoös. 2010 Mar; 23: 79-91.

Ethical aspects related to involvement of animals in animal assisted therapy. Fejsáková, M.; Kottferová, J.; Mareková, J.; Jakuba, T; Ondrašovičová, O.; Ondrašovič, M. Folia Veterinaria. 2009; 53: 62-64.

Animal-assisted Therapy--A New Trend in the Treatment of Children and Adults. Dimitrijević, I. Psychiatria Danubina. 2009 Jun; 21(2): 236-241.

Unleash the Healing Power of Pet Therapy. McKenney, Charlotte; Johnson, Rebecca. American Nurse Today, 2008 May; 3(5): 29-31.

A Helping Paw: Animal-assisted Therapy. Animal Visitations Are Shown to Have Beneficial Effects On a Wide Range of Patients. Mullett, Steve. RN, 2008 Jul; 71(7): 39-44.

Behavioral Health Staff's Perceptions of Pet-Assisted Therapy: An Exploratory Study
Attitudes and Perceptions of Nurses-In-Training and Psychiatry and Pediatric Residents Towards Animal-Assisted Interventions. Eaglin, Vanessa H. Hawaii Medical Journal, 2008 Feb; 67(2): 45-47.

The Analysis of Opinions of Staff Members Working in the Institutions About Visiting Activities of the Companion Animal Partnership Program. Masako Ando et al., Japanese Animal Hospital Association CAPP team, Kumamoto branch Across, Japan. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008

Physiological Arousal for Companion Dogs Working with Their Owners in Animal-Assisted Activities and Animal-Assisted Therapy. Haubenhofer, D. K., Kirchengast, S. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 9(2) 2006 Mar: 165-72.

Cortisol Concentrations in Saliva of Humans and Their Dogs in Intensive Training Courses in Animal-Assisted Therapy. Haubenhofer, D., Möstl, E., Kirchengast, S. Veterinary Medicine Austria - Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 92(3) 2006 Mar:66-73.

Measuring Stress and Immune Response in Healthcare Professionals Following Interaction with a Therapy Dog: A Pilot Study. S.B. Barker; J.S. Knisely; N.L; N.L. McCain: A.M. Best.

The Healing Power of Dogs: Cocoa's Story . Cangelosi, P.R., Embrey, C.N. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2006 Jan; 44(1):17-20.

Frontal Midline Theta Activity As a Index of the Efficacy of Animal-Assisted Therapy in Cases of Math Anxiety. Brubaker, A.S., Lau, J.K., San Miguel, M.,Geisler, M.W. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2004; 54:158-9.

The Therapeutic Nature of the Human/Animal Bond: Implications for Integrative Public Health. Benda, W. Integrative Medicine, 3(3) 2004 Jun/Jul: 26-30.

It’s All in the Planning. Reynolds, Alison. SCAS Journal, 2008 Summer; 20(2): 16-18.

‘Is Karl In?’ Paws That Heal. Whittington, Anne E. American Journal of Nursing, 2008 Jul; 108(7): 31-34. Correspondence to Whittington, Health and Wellness Department, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, San Diego, CA, 92134-5000 USA; anne.whittington@med.navy.mil

Health Benefits of Animal-Assisted Interventions . Morrison, Michele L. Complementary Health Practice Review, 2007 Jan; 12(1): 51-62. Review article. Correspondence to Morrison; morrisonRN@hotmail.com

Dog Handlers' and Dogs' Emotional and Cortisol Secretion Responses Associated with Animal-Assisted Therapy Sessions. Haubenhofer, Dorit Karla; Kirchengast, Sylvia. Society & Animals, 2007; 15(2): 127-150.


ABUSE


Empowering Abused Women Through Equine Assisted Career Therapy. Froeschle, Janet. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. 2009 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 181-190.

Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy with Adult Female Survivors of Abuse. Meinersmann, K. M. Bradberry, J., F. Bright. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 2008 Dec;46(12):36-42.


ALCOHOLISM / SUBSTANCE ABUSE


*Dog-Assisted Therapy In Prison: Emotional Competences And Emotional Status Of Drug-Addicted Criminal Offenders. Burger, Eva; Stetina, Birgit U.; Turner, Karoline; McElheney, Julia; Handlos, Ursula. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2011 Jan-Feb; 6(1); 79-80.

A Case Study Using Animal-Assisted Therapy to Promote Abstinence in a Group of Individuals Who are Recovering from Chemical Addictions. Campbell-Begg, T., Journal of Addictions Nursing, 2000; 12(1): 31-35


ALZHEIMER'S


*Effects Of Animal-Assisted Therapy For Responding To Passive Behavior In Persons With Dementia. Soprano, C. A.; Kolanowski, A. M.; Chinchilli, V. M.; Colling, K.; Lago, D.; Penrod, J. Gerontologist. 2010 Oct; 50; Supplement 1: 443-443.

The Impact Of Different Dog-Related Stimuli On Engagement Of Persons With Dementia. Marx, Marcia S.; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Regier, Natalie G.; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Srihari, Ashok; Thein, Khin. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias, 2010 Feb; 25: 37-45.

Dog Visitation Therapy in Dementia Care: A Literature Review. Williams, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Rhiannon. Nursing Older People. 2008 Oct; 20(8): 31-35.

Animal-assisted Therapy As a Nondrug Approach to Pain and Depression for Older Adults with Dementia. Richeson, Nancy E. Activities Directors' Quarterly for Alzheimer's and Other Dementia Patients, 8(1) 2007 Winter: 3-6.

Emotional Response in Interaction with Dogs. Toshimitsu Musha, Akimitsu Yokoyama, Wataru Mizutani. Brain Functions Laboratory, Inc., Japan, Teikyo University of Science; Technology, Japanese Animal Hospital Association. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008

Animal Assisted Therapy for People with Dementia. Motomura, N., Yagi, T., Ohyama, H. Psychogeriatrics. 2004 Jun; (4)2:40-2

Using Aquariums in Managing Alzheimer's Disease: Influence on Resident Nutrition and Behaviors and Improving Staff Morale. N. Edwards, and A. Beck

Animal-Assisted Therapy in a Nursing Home Alzheimer Special Care. Debra Buttram, Giovanni Bigatello, Pasquale Fresca, Marcello Galimberti, Istituto Geriatrico Ca’ d’Industria ed Uniti Lughi Pii, 22100, Como Italy and AIUCA (Associazione Italiana Uso Cani d’Assistenza), 23042, Bosisio Parini (LC), Italy Presentation from the 10th International Conference on Human- Animal Interactions, People and Animals: A Timeless Relationship, Glasgow, Scotland, October 6-9 2004.


AUTISM


What A Dog Can Do: Children With Autism And Therapy Dogs In Social Interaction. Solomon, Olga. Ethos. 2010 Mar; 38(1): 143-166.

The Effectiveness Of Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program In Children With Autism. Wuang, Yee-Pay; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Su, Chwen-Yng. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 2010 Apr;27(2):113-26.

Guinea Pigs - The “Small Great” Therapist For Autistic Children, Or: Do Guinea Pigs Have Positive Effects On Autistic Child Social Behavior? Kršková, Lucia; Talarovičová, Alžbeta; Olexová, Lucia. Society and Animals. 18(2); 2010: 139-151.

The Effects Of Equine Assisted Activities On The Social Functioning Of Children With Autism. Bass, Margaret M.; Llabre, Maria. 2010. (17 p.)

The Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Social Functioning in Children with Autism. Bass, M.M.; Duchowny, C.A.; Llabre, M.M. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2009 Sep; 39(9): 1261-1267

Sentinels of Safety: Service Dogs Ensure Safety and Enhance Freedom and Well-Being for Families with Autistic Children. Burrows, Kristen E.; Adams, Cindy L.; Spiers, Jude. Qualitative Health Research, 18(12); 2008 Dec: 1642-1649.

Factors Affecting Behavior and Welfare of Service dogs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Burrows, Kristen E; Adams, Cindy L; Millman, Suzanne T. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1): 42-62.

The Effects of Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) on the Interaction Abilities of Children with Autism. Cecilia Carenzi, Marcello M Galimberti, Debra D Buttram, Emanuela Prato Previde, Istituto di Psicologia, Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Italy, 2AIUCA, Via IV Novembre, 26 – Bosisio, Parini (LC), Italy. Istituto di Psicologia - Universita' degli Studi di Milano. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008

A Speechless Child: Two Years and a Half of AAT Versus Autism. Renata Fossati, Antonella Taboni. Golden Heart Voluntary Association, Italy, Fossati Renata. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008

Canine Animal-Assisted Therapy Model for the Autistic Children in Taiwan. Ming-Lee Yeh, Department of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taiwan. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008

Occupational Therapy Incorporating Animals for Children with Autism: A Pilot Investigation. Sams, M. J., Fortney, E. V., Willenbring, S. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 60(3) 2006 May/Jun:268-74

The Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Social Functioning in Children with Autism. Bass, M.M.; Duchowny ; Llabre: ; 39: 1261-1267


CANCER

*Animal-Assisted Therapy As An Approach To Psychosocial Symptoms In Oncopediatric Patients. Toro, Daniel; del Pilar Valdes, Ma. Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 2010 Nov; 55(5): 958-958.


Pet therapy Effects on Oncological Day Hospital Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Treatment
. Orlandi, Massimo; Trangeled, Karina; Mambrini,Andrea; Tagliani, Mauro; Ferrarini, Ada; Zanetti, Liana; Tartarini, Roberta; Pacetti, Paola; Cantore, Maurizio, Anticancer Research. 2007; 27(6C): 4301-4304.

Animal-Assisted Activity Among Patients with Cancer: Effects on Mood, Fatigue, Self-Perceived Health, and Sense of Coherence. Johnson, Rebecca A.; Meadows, Richard L; Haubner, Jennifer S; Sevedge, Kathleen. Oncology Nursing Forum, 2008; 35(2): 225-32.


CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS


*The Impact Of Kynotherapy In Handicapped Children. Pawlik-Popielarska, Beata Maria. Acta Neuropsychologica. 2010 Jan-Mar; 8(1): 26-37.

*Are Dogs Stimulant? Looking For Effective Sensory Inputs For Children With Intellectual And Multiple Disabilities. Lima, Mariely; Silva, Karine; Magalhães, Ana; Amaral, Isabel; de Sousa, Liliana. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2011 Jan-Feb; 6(1); 68-68.

*Psycho-Educational Horseback Riding To Facilitate Communication Ability Of Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Keino, Hiromi; Funahashi, Atsushi; Keino, Hiroomi; Miwa, Chihiro; Hosokawa, Masanori; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Kawakita, Kenji. Journal of Equine Science. 2009 Dec; 20(4): 79-88.

*A Qualitative And Quantitative Review Of Equine Facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP) With Children And Adolescents. Lentini, J.A.; Knox, Michele. Open Complementary Medicine Journal. 2009; 1: 51-57.

*'Queen Of The World': Experiences Of 'At-Risk' Young People Participating In Equine-Assisted Learning/Therapy. Burgon, Hannah Louise. Journal of Social Work Practice. 2011; 25(2): 165-183.

How A Therapy Dog May Inspire Student Literacy Engagement In The Elementary Language Arts Classroom. Friesen, Lori. LEARNing Landscapes. 2009 Autumn; 3(1): 105-122.

Preschoolers Make Fewer Errors On An Object Categorization Task In The Presence Of A Dog. Gee, Nancy R.; Church, Meredith T.; Altobelli, Christie L. Anthrozoös. 2010 Sep; 23(3): 223-230.

Systematic Observation Of Social Competences: Video Analysis Of An Animal-Assisted Training With Children And Adolescents. Burger, E.; Stetina, B.U.; Sinabell, C.; Widmann, V.; Handlos ,U.; Kryspin-Exner, I. Psychology & Health. 209 Sep; 24, Supplement 1: 376-377.

The Use Of Animals As Co-Therapists On A Farm: The Child-Horse Bond In Person-Centered Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy. Chardonnens, Evelyne. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies. 2009 Winter; 8(4): 319-332.

Animal-Assisted Play Therapy For Children Suffering From Emotional Stress. Axelrad-Levy, Tamar. International Journal of Psychology. 2008 Jun-Aug; 43(3-4): 484-484.

The Effect Of Animal-Assisted Therapy On Stress Responses In Hospitalized Children. Tsai, Chia-Chun; Friedmann, Erika; Thomas, Sue A. Anthrozoös. 2010 Sep; 23(3): 245-258.

Preschool Children Require Fewer Instructional Prompts To Perform A Memory Task In The Presence Of A Dog. Gee, Nancy R.; Crist, Elise N.; Carr, Daniel N. Anthrozoös. 2010 Jun; 23(2): 173-184.

Exploring Animal-Assisted Programs With Children In School And Therapeutic Contexts. Friesen, Lori. Early Childhood Education Journal. 2010 Jan; 37(4): 261-267.

Preschoolers' Adherence to Instructions as a Function of Presence of a Dog and Motor Skills Task. Gee, N.R.; Sherlock, T.R.; Bennett, E.A.; Harris, S.L. Anthrozoös, 2009 Sep; 22(3): 267-276

Is Counseling Going to the Dogs? An Exploratory Study Related to the Inclusion of an Animal in Group Counseling with Adolescents. Lange, Amber M; Cox, Jane A.; Bernert, Donna J; Jenkins, Christie D. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 2(2) 2006: 17-31.

Helping Hounds: Does Animal assisted Therapy Improve the Rehabilitation Process? Martindale, Raschelle; Love, Sarah; Abbott, Julie, Bourke, Anne. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2008 Apr; 50: Supplement 113: 12-13.

Cisco's Kids: A Pet Assisted Therapy Behavioral Intervention Program. Cournoyer, Gary P; Uttley, Clarissa. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2007; 7(3): 117-126.

Animal-Assisted Therapy with Children Suffering From Insecure Attachment Due to Abuse and Neglect: A Method to Lower the Risk of Intergenerational Transmission of Abuse? Parish-Plass, Nancy. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2008; 13(1): 7-30.

The Role of Therapy Dogs in Speed and Accuracy to Complete Motor Skills Tasks for Preschool Children. Gee, N. R., Harris S. L., Johnson, Kristina. Anthrozoos, 20 (4) 2007: 375-386.

Canine Visitation (Pet) Therapy: Pilot Data on Decrease in Child Pain Perception. Sobo, E. J., Eng, B., Kassity-Krich, N. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 24(1) 2006 Mar:51-7.

School-Based Social Training With and Without Dogs: Evaluation of Their Effectiveness. Tissen, I., Hergovich, A., Spiel, C., Anthrozoos, 20 (4) 2007: 365-373.

Social Effects of a Dog’s Presence on Children with Disabilities. Esteves, S. W., Stokes, T, Anthrozoos, 21 (1) 2008: 5-15.

“What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?” Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children’s Reading Practice. Jalongo, M.R. Childhood Education, 2005 Spring; 81(3):152-8.

Elephant-Facilitated Psychotherapy – A Clinical Evaluation. Swanepoel, H.C., Odendaal, J.S.J. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 2005; 3(1):205-9.

Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy Benefits Students and Children. Roberts, F., Bradberry, J., Williams, C. Holist Nurs Pract. 2004 Jan-Feb; 18(1):32-5.

Influences of Hippotherapy on the Motor and Social-Emotional Behavior of Young Children with Disabilities. Rolandelli, P.S., Dunst, C.J. Bridges: Practice-Based Research Syntheses, 2003 Sep; 2(1):1-14.

Analysis of Child-Dog Play Behavior in Child Psychiatry. Prothmann, A., Albrecht, K., Dietrich, S., Hornfeck, U., Stieber, S., Ettrich, C. Anthrozoös. 2005; 18(1):43-58

Canine Visitors: The Influence of Therapy Dogs on Young Children's Learning and Well-being in Classrooms and Hospitals. Jalongo. M.R., Astorino, T., Bomboy, N. Early Childhood Education Journal. Aug 2004; 32(1):9-16

Implementing a Hospital-Based Animal Therapy Program for Children with Cancer: A Descriptive Study. Gagnon, J., Bouchard, F., Landry, M., Belles-Isles, M., Fortier, M., Fillion, L. Can Oncol Nurs J. 2004 Fall; 14(4):217-22.

The Value of a Dog in a Classroom of Children with Severe Emotional Disorders.K. Anderson and M. Olson

Can a Week of Therapeutic Riding Make a Difference? - A Pilot Study. L. Kaiser, L. Spence, A. Lavergne and K. Vanden Bosch

Animal-Assisted Therapy with Children. D. Buttram

Assistance Dog Placement in the Pediatric Population: Benefits, Risks, and Recommendations for Future Application. B.W. Davis, K. Nattrass, S. O'Brien, G. Patronek, and M. MacCollin

The Proposed Benefits of Incorporating Non-Human Animals Into Preventative Efforts for Conduct Disorder. E. Gullone

 

CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES


*Dog-Assisted Intervention (MTI) With Mentally Disordered Prisoners: Enhancing Empathy – A Pilot Study. Turner, K.; Stetina, B. U.; E. Burger, E.; L.M. Glenk, L. M.; Kothgassner, O.D.; Handlos, U. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2011 Jan/Feb; 6(1): 97-97.

*Dog-Assisted Therapy In Prison: Emotional Competences And Emotional Status Of Drug-Addicted Criminal Offenders. Burger, Eva; Stetina, Birgit U.; Turner, Karoline; McElheney, Julia; Handlos, Ursula. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2011 Jan-Feb; 6(1); 79-80.

*Dog Welfare For The Conveyance Of Pro-Social Skills To Prison Populations. Linaza, Iñaki; Muro, Cristina. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2011 Jan/Feb; 6(1): 93-94.

Animal-Assisted Therapy With Female Inmates With Mental Illness: A Case Example From A Pilot Program. Jasperson, Rachael A. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 2010; 49(6): 417-433.

Changes In Emotional Competences Of Drug Offenders During Dog-Assisted Group Training (MTI). Stetina, Birgit U.; Kuchta, Barbara; Gindl, Barbara, Lederman Maman, Tamara; Handlos, Ursula; Wedenich, Wolfgang; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 2009 Mar/Apr; 4(2): 99-100.

Effectiveness Of A Rehabilitation Dog In Fostering Gait Retraining For Adults With A Recent Stroke: A Multiple Single-Case Study. Rondeau, Lynda; Corriveau, Hélène; Bier, Nathalie; Camden, Chantal; Champagne, Noël; Dion, Chantale. NeuroRehabilitation. 2010 Jan 1; 27(2): 155-163.

Health Promotion With The Animal Assisted Training (MTI) For Drug Offenders. Stetina, B.U.; Gegenhuber, B.; McElheney, J.; Handlos, U.; Kuchta, B.; Gindl, B.; Werdenich, W.; Kryspin-Exner, I. Psychology & Health. 2009 Sep; 24 Supplement 1: 376-377.

Prisoner Rehabilitation: Learning Life Skills Through Animal-Assisted activities. SCAS Journal, 2007 Autumn; 19(3): 9-11.

Prison Pups: Assessing the Effects of Dog Training Programs in Correctional Facilities. Britton, D. M., Button, A. Journal of Family Social Work, 9(4) 2005:79-95.

Humanizing prisons with animals: a closer look at cell dogs and horse programs in correctional institutionss. Deaton, C. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(1) 2005 Mar: 46-62.

Without Words to Get in the Way: Symbolic Interaction in Prison-Based Animal Programs. Furst, G. Qualitative Sociology Review, 3(1) 2007 Apr:96-109.

Prison-Based Animal Programs: A National Survey. Furst, G. Prison Journal, 86(4) 2006 Dec: 407-30.

Human-Animal Interaction in a Prison Setting: Impact on Criminal Behavior, Treatment Progress, and Social Skills. Fournier, A. K., Geller, E S., Fortney, E. V. Behavior and Social Issues, 16(1) 2007 Spring-Summer: 89-105.

Psychosocial Impact of a Service Dog Training Program on Inmate Trainers. H. M. Suthers-McCabe, E. E. Van Voorhees and A. K. Fournier


HOSPICE


Companion Animals in Palliative Care: Stories from the Bedside. Geisler, A.M. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2004 Jul-Aug; 21(4):285-8.


HOSPITAL

*Impact Of Canine-Assisted Ambulation On Hospitalized Chronic Heart Failure Patients' Ambulation Outcomes And Satisfaction: A Pilot Study. Abate, Samantha V.; Zucconi, Michele; Boxer, Bruce Alan. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2011 Mar; 26(3): 224-230.

*Animal Assisted Therapy: Results From A Rural Nursing Home Recreation Therapy Outreach Project. Buettner, L. Gerontologist. 2009 Oct; 49; Supplement 2: 123-123.


Animal-Assisted Therapy: Evaluation And Implementation Of A Complementary Therapy To Improve The Psychological And Physiological Health Of Critically Ill Patients
. DeCourcey, Mary; Russell, Anne C.; Keister, Kathy J. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2010 Sep-Oct; 29(5): 211-214.

Dog-Assisted Intervention Significantly Reduces Anxiety In Hospitalized Patients With Major Depression. Hoffmann, Andreas O.M.; Lee, Ah Hyung; Wertenauer, Florian; Ricken, Roland; Jansen, Joanna J.; Gallinat, Juergen; Lang, Undine E. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2009; 1(3): 145-148.

Creating a Therapeutic and Healing Environment with a Pet Therapy Program. Coakley, A.B.; Mahoney, E.K. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2009 Aug; 15(3): 141-146

Natural Activity: An Explorative Study of the Interplay Between Cage-Birds and Older People in a Swedish Hospital Setting. Falk, Hanna; Wijk, Helle. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 2008 Mar; 3(1): 22-28.

Animal-Assisted Therapy in Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure. Cole, K. M., Gawlinski, A., Steers, N., Kotlerman, J. American Journal of Critical Care, 16(6) 2007 November: 575-588.

Animal-Assisted Activity at A. Meyer Children's Hospital: A Pilot Study. Caprilli, Simona; Messeri, Andrea. Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2006 Sep; 3(3): 379-83.


INFECTION CONTROL


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Resident Animals Of A Long-Term Care Facility. Coughlan, K.; Olsen, K. E.; Boxrud, D.; Bender, J. B. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2010;. 57(3): 220-226.

Guidelines for Animal-assisted Interventions in Health Care Facilities. Writing Panel of Working Group: Lefebvre, Sandra L; Golab, Gail C; Christensen, Lise; Castrodale, Louisa; Aureden, Kathy; Bialachowski, Anne; Gumley, Nigel; Robinson, Judy; Peregrine, Andrew; Benoit, Marilyn; Card, Mary Lou; Van Horne, Liz; Weese, J Scott. American Journal of Infection Control, 2008 Mar; 36(2): 78-85.

Designing a Standard Infection Control Policy for Animals Visiting Patients in Healthcare Facilities. Sandra L. Lefebvre, David Waltner-Toews, J. Scott Weese. Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Canada, Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008


LONG TERM CARE / NURSING HOMES


*Effect Of Animal-Assisted Therapy On Engagement Of Rural Nursing Home Residents. Martindale, Brianne P. American Journal of Recreation Therapy. 2008 Fall; 7(4): 45-53.

*A Comparison Of Animal-Assisted Therapy And Animal-Assisted Activities With Dogs In Swedish Residential Care. Nord, C. Gerontologist. 2010 Oct; 50: Supplement 1: 32-32.

Animals Connecting People to People: Insights Into Animal-Assisted Therapy and Animal-Assisted Activities. Schaffer, C. B. Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping, 2009 Winter; 15(1): 42-45

Animal-Assisted Therapy as an Intervention with Older Adults. Dennis, J.L.; Allen, K. R. (2006)

Pet Encounters: Animal-assisted Therapy for Frail Older Adults. Buettner, Linda L. Activities Directors' Quarterly for Alzheimer's & Other Dementia Patients, 2008 Winter; 9(1): 29-45.

An Investigation of the Effects of Dog Visits on Depression, Mood, and Social Interaction in Elderly Individuals Living in a Nursing Home. Phelps, Kristin A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Jens, Tess; Wadeson, Heather. Behavioral Interventions, 2008 Jul; 23(3): 181-200.

Animal-Assisted Therapy and Loneliness in Nursing Homes: Use of Robotic Versus Living dogs. Banks, Marian R; Willoughby, Lisa M; Banks, William A. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 2008 Mar; 9(3): 173-177. Correspondence to William A Banks, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63106.

The Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Loneliness in an Elderly Population in Long-Term Care Facilities. Banks, MR, Banks, WA, Journal of Gerontology, 2002, 57(7):28-32.Nursing Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63106, USA. bankswa@slu.edu

Observable Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy Using Dogs. Hjaltadóttir, I., Pétursdóttir, A. B., Saemundsdóttir, G., Vikingsdóttir, G. L., Atladóttir, I. International Psychogeriatrics, 15 Supplement.2, 2003: 283-4.

Long-Term Evaluation of Animal-Assisted Therapy for Institutionalized Elderly People: A Preliminary Result. Kawamura, N., Niiyama, M., Niiyama, H. Psychogeriatrics, 7(1) 2007 Mar: 8-13.

Pet therapy and Institutionalized Elderly: A Study on 144 Cognitively Unimpaired Subjects. Colombo, G., Dello Buono, M., Smania, K., Raviola, R., De Leo, D. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 42(2) 2006 Mar-Apr: 207-16.
The Effects of Group and Individual Animal-Assisted Therapy on Loneliness in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities. M. Banks and W. Banks


LOSS


Love and Loss: Ellie and Oscar A Case Study Highlighting Implications of Attachment and Loss Within Animal Assisted Therapy Programs. Susan Elisa Dawson Blue Cross/SCAS Pet Bereavement Support Service, Society for Companion Animal Studies/Blue Cross, United Kingdom. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008


MENTAL DISABILITIES


Animal-Assisted Therapy Applied To Persons With Mental Disabilities. Rodrigo Claverol, M.D.; Sarmiento Cruz, M.; Ortega Bravo, M.; Rodrigo Claverol, E.; Capdevila Andreu, M.; Vilanova-Gotarda, L.; Real-Gatius, J. Swiss Medical Weekly. 2009 Aug 22; 139 Supplementum 175: 117S-117S.


OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY


Resident and Therapist Views of Animal-Assisted Therapy: Implications for Occupational Therapy Practice. Velde, B.P., Cipriani, J., Fisher, G. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 2005 Mar; 52(1):43-50


PAIN, POST-OPERATIVE


Relief of Postoperative Pain with Animal-Assisted therapy (AAT) in Comparison with Music Therapy (MT). Masahiro Takano, Masako Ando, Sachiko Takano, Meiko Tanaka, Zenjiro Nagahiro, Kikuko Maeda Coloproctology Center, Takano Hospital, Japan. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People and Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008


POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)


*Animal-Assisted Prolonged Exposure: A Treatment For Survivors Of Sexual Assault Suffering Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Lefkowitz, Carin; Paharia, Indira; Prout, Maurice; Debiak, Dennis, Bleiberg, James. Society & Animals. 2005; 23(4): 275-295.

Bringing Dogs To Heal. Thompson, Mark. Time. 2010 Nov 22; 176(21): 54-57. 

Glucocorticoids contribute to PTSD (and animals can see threats where none exist)  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a hypermnesia of the trauma and by a memory impairment that decreases the ability to restrict fear to the appropriate context. Infusion of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus after fear conditioning induces PTSD-like memory impairments and an altered pattern of neural activation in the hippocampal-amygdalar circuit. Mice become unable to identify the context as the correct predictor of the threat and show fear responses to a discrete cue not predicting the threat in normal conditions. These data demonstrate PTSD-like memory impairments in rodents and identify a potential pathophysiological mechanism of this condition. , Published Online February 23 2012, ScienceVol. 335 no. 6075 pp. 1510-1513, DOI: 10.1126/science.1207615, Authors - 

  • Aline Desmedt


  • PSYCHIATRIC FACILITIES


    *The Effect Of Animal-Assisted Activity On Inpatients With Schizophrenia. Chu, Cheng-I; Liu, Chao-Yin; Sun, Chi-Tzu; Lin, Jung. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 2009 Dec; 47(12): 42-48.

    *Matching Animal-Assisted Therapy Techniques And Intentions With Counseling Guiding Theories. Chandler, Cynthia K.; Portrie-Bethke, Torey L.; Minton, Casey A. Barrio; Fernando, Delini M.; O'Callaghan, Dana M. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 2010 Oct; 32(4): 354-374.

    *Reduced Anxiety During Dog Assisted Interviews In Acute Schizophrenic Patients. Lang, Undine E.; Jansen, Joanna B.; Wertenauer, Florian; Gallinat, Juergen; Rapp, Michael A. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2010 Sep; 2(3): 123-127.

    *Use Of Animal-Assisted Therapy With Psychiatric Patients: A Literature Review. Rossetti, Jeanette; King, Camille. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services. 2010 Nov; 48(11): 44-48.

    Attitudes to Animal-Assisted Therapy with Farm Animals Among Health Staff and Farmers. Berget, B; Ekeberg, Ø; Braastad, B O. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 2008 Sep; 15(7): 5765-5781.

    Use of Animal-Assisted Therapy in the Rehabilitation of an Assault Victim with a Concurrent Mood Disorder. Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Li, Madeline; Krishnadev, Upasana; Hanson, Keith; Balaban, Kayli; Pacione, Laura R; Bhalerao, Shree. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2008; 29(1): 73-84.

    Animal-Assisted Therapy with Farm Animals for Persons with Psychiatric Disorders: Effects on Self-Efficacy, Coping Ability and Quality of Life, A Randomized Controlled Trial. Berget, Bente; Ekeberg, Øivind; Braastad, Bjarne O. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 2008 Apr 11; 4(9)

    The Use of Animal-Assisted Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing: The Story of Timmy and Buddy. Niksa, E. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 45(6) 2007 Jun:56-8.

    Effects of Equine Facilitated Psychotherapy on Client Discharge Status. Turner, J. J. Scientific and Educational Journal of Therapeutic Riding, [no.11] 2005:31-9.

    An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Nonverbal Communication in Three Schizophrenic Patients. Kovács, Z., Bulucz, J., Kis, R., Simon, L. Anthrozoös, 19(4) 2006:353-64.

    Animal-Assisted Therapy for Middle-Aged Schizophrenic Patients Living in a Social Institution. A Pilot Study. Kovacs, Z., Kis, R., Rozsa, S., Rozsa, L. Clin Rehabil. 2004 Aug; 18(5):483-6.

    Pet Companionship and Depression: Results from a United States Internet Sample. R. B. Tower and M. Nokota

    Effect of Aquariums on Electroconvulsive Therapy Patients. S. Barker, K. Rasmussen and A. Best

    Case Studies of Adults Receiving Horse-Riding Therapy. H. Burgon, Department of Social Work, University of Exeter, UK Anthrozoos, 16 (3), 2003: 262-76

    Interaction of Psychologically Disturbed Children with a Therapy Dog. A. Prothmann, S. Stieber, U. Hornfeck, S. Dietrich, K. Albrecht and C. Ettrich.


    REHABILITATION


    *Effectiveness Of A Rehabilitation Dog In Fostering Gait Retraining For Adults With A Recent Stroke: A Multiple Single-Case Study. Rondeau, Lynda; Corriveau, Hélène; Bier, Nathalie; Camden, Chantal; Champagne, Noël; Dion, Chantale. NeuroRehabilitation. 2010 Jan 1; 27(2): 155-163.

    *Use Of Hippotherapy In Gait Training For Hemiparetic Post-Stroke. Beinotti, Fernanda; Correia, Nilzete; Christofoletti, Gustavo; Borges, Guilherme. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. 2010 Dec; 68(6): 908-913.

    Using AAT within Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Does It Enhance Social Communication and Participation? Ruth C. Townsend et al., Speech Pathology Service, Royal Talbot Rehabilitation Centre (part of Austin Health), Australia, Deakin University, Royal Talbot Rehabilitation Centre, Delta Society Australia. Presentation from the 11th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions, People & Animals: Partnership in Harmony, Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 2008

    Measuring Clinical Outcomes of Animal-Assisted Therapy: Impact on Resident Medication Usage. Lust, E., Ryan-Haddad, A., Coover, K., Snell, J. Consultant Pharmacist, 22(7) 2007 Jul: 580-5.


    SCHOOLS


    Kids, Dogs, and the Occupation of Literacy. Scott, Keri; Haseman, Jean; Hammetter, Rona OT Practice, 2005 Feb 21; 10(3): 16-20.

    Active Open Learner Models as Animal Companions: Motivating Children to Learn Through Interacting with My-Pet and Our-Pet. Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chou, Chih-Yueh; Deng, Yi-Chan; Chan, Tak-Wai. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 2007; 17(2): 145-167.

    R.E.A.D. Is a Pawsitive Program for Kids of All Ages. Originally published in Interactions, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2001. By Sandi Martin


    SPEECH THERAPY


    The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia: Case Report. LaFrance, C., Garcia, L. J., Labreche, J. Journal of Communication Disorders, 40(3) 2007 May-Jun: 215-24. 

    Older Research

    (Note: Dog Reserach apologizes in advance if articles with later dates are listed above and some with newer dates are listed in this section.  We're trying to bring important articles that impact on how trainers work with clients in the research articles section above, if you are feeling strongly that anything included here would be better highlighted above, please email us.)

    Elsevior's Behavioural Processes publication - Special Edition on Canine Cognition - 2009 

    Applied Animal Behavior Science - Special Edition on Behavior Problems in Small Animals (primarily dogs) - Volume 42, 1997


    Udell, M. A. R., Dorey, N. R., & Wynne, C. D. L. (in press). Inter species social learning in dogs: The inextricable roles of phylogeny and ontogeny. In T. Zentall & E. Wasserman (Eds.) Comparative Cognition (2nd Ed.) Oxford Univ. Press. NY.

    Wynne, C. D. L., Dorey, N. R., & Udell, M. A. R. (2010). The other side of the bond: Domestic dogs’ human-like behaviors. In P. McCardle, S. McCune, F. Ahmadu, J. Griffin & K. Hurley (Eds.) Directions in Human-Animal Interaction Research: Child Development, Health and Therapeutic Interventions.Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.

    Udell, M. A. R., Dorey, N., Wynne, C. D. L. (2010). The performance of stray dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) living in a shelter on human guided object-choice tasks. Animal Behaviour. 79, 717–725..

    Udell, M. A. R., & Wynne, C. D. L. (2010). Ontogeny and phylogeny: both are essential to human-sensitive behavior in the genus Canis. Animal Behaviour. 79, e9-e14. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.11.033 - PDF

    Udell, M. A. R., Dorey, N. R., & Wynne, C. D. L. (2010). What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs’ sensitivity to human actions. Biological Reviews. 85, 327-345. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00104.x - <PDF>

    Dorey, N. R., Udell, M. A. R., Wynne, C. D. L. (2010). When do domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, start to understand human pointing? The role of ontogeny in the development of interspecies communication. Animal Behaviour. 79, 37–41. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.09.032 - <PDF>


    Dorey, N. R., Udell, M. A. R., & Wynne, C. D. L. (2009). Breed differences in dogs sensitivity to human points: A Meta-analysis. Behavioural Processes, 81, 400-415. doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2009.03.011 - <PDF>

    Wynne, C. D. L. (2009). Editorial: Special Issue on canine behavior and cognition. Behavioural Processes. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2009.04.007 - <PDF>

    Udell, M. A. R., Dorey, N. R. & Wynne, C. D. L. (2008). Wolves outperform dogs in following human social cues. Animal Behaviour, 76, 1767-1773. - doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.07.028 - < PDF>

    Ufdell, M. A. R, & Wynne, C. D. L. (2008). A review of domestic dogs’ (Canis familiaris) human-like behaviors: Or why behavior analysts should stop worrying and love their dogs. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 89, 247-261. - doi: 10.1901/jeab.2008.89-247 - <PDF> - <HTML>

    Udell, M. A. R, Giglio, R. F. & Wynne, C. D. L. (2008). Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use human gestures but not nonhuman tokens to find hidden food. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, 84-93. doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.122.1.84 - <HTML>