LINKS and INFORMATION FOR DOG PROFESSIONALS (and anyone who is totally into learning about dogs)

...don't forget to check out our blog articles as well (and review what research tells us about working with dogs on the Research page)

© Copyright 2015. 

Dog Friendship, its content, articles and the Dog Friendship Blog

are the exclusive property of Dog Friendship. 

Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material 

without express and written permission from the site author

is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, 

provided that full and clear credit is given to Dog Friendship, 

with clear and specific direction to the website link

 for the original content.   

Content below includes info on:

Becoming Certified and getting Continuing Education Units (CEU's)

Online Training Magazines

Teaching Classes

Games

Equipment

Premises

Business Software (including customer databases, scheduling and online class registration) 

Graphic Design

Training & Behavior Language/Terms/Glossaries

The People Side -  Staffing and Compassion Fatigue & Trainer Self-Care

Instructing Clients on Dog Health - Dental & Nail Clipping, Muzzling

Dealing with Special Needs Dogs (Deaf, Reactive - including virtual leagues for dogs who can't be shown at trials)

Disaster & Succession Business Planning

Do I Need a Preventive Rabies Vaccination?

Marketing - including use of the term client, using car signs, working with vets, thanking clients, referral fees, negotiating training and seminar fees, supporting clients in stress reduction to improve training outcomes

Vets & Trainers specializing in animal behavior/hard to handle cases (with blogs)

Universities doing research on canine cognition, human-animal bond, accepting behavior clients

Reading List - Focused Behavior Books 

Certification and Continuing Education Units (CEUs) for Dog Trainers and Behaviorists:

The maze of CERTIFICATION and certifying bodies explained.  Articles on a career in training and certification as a trainer are available from American, Canadian and International groups like APDT, IAABC, CAPDT and others.  Here are links to study groups for the certifications - Quizlet (search for CPDT) and the CPDT Yahoo study group.

When looking at career possibilities, don't forget about options that include training and working with a dog as a team - including forensic tracking, insect and infestation detection, conservation and animal tracking, fire investigation and accelerant detection, search and rescue and security. 

The Certification Council for Professional Dog Trainers lists ongoing CEU events here.

The Association of Pet Dog Trainers offers webinars and an events listing.

The International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants regularly offers events.

The Animal Behavior Resources Institute offers resources for professionals online.

There are a variety of courses that may or may not qualify for CEU's at the Dog Seminars site

And there are private, for-profit organizations and independent trainers offering courses for CEU's - like E-Training for Dogs, the Companion Animal Sciences Institute and Animal Behavior Associations - Behavior Education Network (telecourse and webinar CEU's by monthly subscription) - Suzanne Hetts .

National Association of Dog Obedience Instructors - searchable Newsletter Archives


You can also keep up to date by following news from these groups, and checking out the "Research for Pros" section:

American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior

American College of Veterinary Behaviorists

Society of Veterinary Behavior Technicians

Animal Behavior Society

Association of Pet Behaviour Counselors

Certified Applied Animal Behaviorists

International Society for Anthrozoology (human-animal interaction)

International Society for Applied Ethology (study of animals)


Online Free Magazines and Newsletters

The Pet Dog Trainers of Europe (edited by Turgid Rugass)

International Society for Anthrozoology (only pre-2008 newsletters, news is now done on a members-only listserv)

International Society for Applied Ethology

College of Veterinarians of Ontario

Dog Writers of America Forum


Pre-Made Classes (Can Be Licensed/Purchased)

Kinderpuppy Puppy Class Manual

Control Unleashed (Leslie McDevitt teaches a seven week off-leash agility course)

Family Paws (Dogs & Storks)

Introducing Your Dog to Your Baby (Animal Behavior Network)

Getting Started with APDT Rally Obedience in Your Business (free)

How to Start a Rally Class - Originally published in Dog & Handler Magazine.

Rally Lesson Plans - Lesson plans for students and instructors in for a beginning Rally course.

Running Contacts

First Aid Courses offering Instructor Certificaiton

Dogsafe Canine First Aid

Walks 'n' Wags


Handouts & Training Tools

(note: multiple websites have their own handouts, here are a sample few we think are useful)

The Dog Smith - Exercises e-book 

dog*tec (offers ready-made curriculum and support for dog business owners)


Emergency Procedures

Draft Fire Plan

 

Emergency Dog Supplies & Walking Muzzles

Catch Poles & Snarem Capture Nooses

Epi-Pet electrolyte replacement & Epi-Pet sunscreen for dogs

Muzzles - MorrcoJafco, Four Flags Over Aspen (pug and bulldog emergency muzzles)

Slip leads (vinyl coated cable) (regular leashes, see below)

Soft Stretchers & Hard Stretchers

DogLeggs Therapeutic & Rehabilitative Products

Gloves - Protect your hands while working with a dog who has the potential to bite.

Hitches/Tether Bolts

"Don't Touch - Dog in Behavior Therapy" T-shirt for dogs (seriously!)

Liability Insurance

Here's a brief article on dog trainer insurance.

Both the American Pet Dog Trainers (APDT) association 

and the Canadian Association of Professional Pet Dog Trainers (CAPPDT) offer their members discounted liability insurance.


 

Setting Up Runs (agility, obedience, rally)

Free Agility Course Maps


Games  

Dog Obedience Games

Card Games for Dog Training Fun

From Dog Start Daily (Sirius/Dunbar) 

Musical Chairs, Doggy Dash, Kong Retrieve, Distance Catch, Take & Drop, Joe Pup Relay, Recall Relay, Woof Relay, Waltzes with Dogs

Treibball Games - click on the game tab

 

Dog Wear & Thunderstorm Support (and Sound Effects)

Garadun - leashes (custom leather, TTouch and nylon)

The Wag - leashes and guide dog harness (custom leather)

Sense-ible Front-Clip Harness

www.thundershirt.com 

Trish King's Calming Cap

Dog’s Ear,” a clinically researched auditory approach for helping canine behavior issues, calming during thunderstorms and preventing noise phobias.

Find Sounds is a great source for quick audio clips for desensitization and presentations (some are copyrighted)

Dog Diapers for Incontinence (and unspayed females)

Mutt Muffs (noise-reducing headphones for dogs)

 

Training Equipment

Pac'NGo - portable, long-lasting agility equipment

Clean Run - agility equipment

Max 2000 - agility and obedience equipment

Petexpertise.com - clickers, toys and more

Wholesalepet.com - registered retailers buy in bulk

Sheep Dog Herding - herding supplies and whistles

Herding Canada - website for all things herding (including supplies)

Fox Whistles - great pea-less whistles, variety of whistles with/wo corporate logos


Clickers & Treat Delivery

The Clicker Company - clickers and training equipment

GoTube - Tubes for squeeze treats 

Food Tubes


Location/Premises

Business Use of Your Home (US - IRS Pub. 587) 

Business Use of Your Home (Canada Revenue Agency, Guide to Small Business)

Great Mats - specialty flooring for dog schools, agility

Virox (Pure Oxygen or Peroxigard) - scent-free, non-toxic, no residue cleaner for use instead of bleach (safe on grass)

AlphaTechPet (cleaning supplies)


Books

Dog Wise (Affiliate Network)


Business Software

Practice Management:

DogBizPro (provides dog and client records, online class registration, starts at ~$200 for one user and hosting cost of $20 per month)

Dog Trainer Connexion (provides dog and client records, class registration, training plan handouts, etc., one time cost of $279)

If you're looking at a bigger practice and want a more fullsome system, veterinary software may be worth a look - places like VetBlue (cost of the software starts at a one-time $697 setup fee and $97 per month for the first user)

Another option is legal practice management software - HoudiniEsq is a great free (for one use) system that tracks clients, allows invoicing, scheduling, etc.

Free electronic seminar and class registration systems

Wanting to keep track of who is registering for a seminar but don't have an admin assistant?  Check out Meetup (and see how one dog trainer uses it to promote his free series of "people training" seminars) or EventBrite (free for free events, but charges a fee to events that charge, includes a credit card payment processing service).

Autoresponders & Online Stores:

1Automation Whiz (full featured but fairly pricey)

Logging In/Connecting to Your Home Computer:

Here's a comparison list of services - many are free.

GotoMyPC (about $10 a month - your home computer must have an internet connection active)

Email Marketing & Newsletters:

MailChimp (free)

Tinyletter (free)

iContact

Constant Contact

My Emma

Monitoring & Measuring Social Media (Twitter & Facebook trackers)

Topsy (free)

YourBuzz (free)

Accounting

QuickBooks or Quicken

Email/Calendar

Outlook

Google


Graphic Design 

99designs.com (post your request for graphic services and have designers from all over the world bid on your project and submit designs)

crowdspring.com (like 99designs above)

Training & Dog Behavior Terms (?what does that mean?)

Glossaries:

From James O'Heare

Titles for Your Dog by J. Bullock

Internationally Recognized Working Titles from M. Klinkam (Schutzhund)

Dog Fanciers' Acronym List (C. T. Moore - lists about every working dog title that can be obtained)


KEY TERMS:

Punishment 

is simply the procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that reduce the strength of that behavior. (Chance, Learning & Behavior, 5th ed., pg 454.)

The use of punishment is a tricky proposition. Here’s what we know:

-> Reinforcers are things that maintain or keep behavior happening.

-> Punishment can reduce behavior quickly; therefore, it is most reinforcing to the punisher 

->If the function (or reinforcer) of the behavior we are punishing is not removed, it’s likely that the behavior will happen again.

-> In fact, it may even happen more because varying reinforcements create stronger behavior that is less likely to go away.


Reward vs. Bribe

From psychologist James McConnell (who studied with B.F. Skinner): "A bribe is when you pay someone to do something they are NOT supposed to do.  A salary is when you pay someone to do something they are supposed to do.  Giving an animal a food reward for a job well done is a salary, not a bribe."

Operant Conditioning

Dogs gravitate to things that are pleasant (rewards) and they avoid things that are painful or frightening (punishments). Rewards can be given or they can be taken away.  That is exactly what positive and negative mean. "Positive" means to add.  "Negative" means to subtract.  Dog trainers often speak about the "four quadrants of learning"  For a deep and scholarly look at the topic, try this article on Scholarpedia.

Positive Reinforcement: (R+) You give the dog something it likes to reward (reinforce) a behaviour so you get more of it in the future.

Examples:  Giving a dog a treat for sitting.

Positive Punishment:  (P+) Give the dog something it dislikes to suppress (punish) the dog so you get less of the behavior in the future.

Examples:  Yanking on a choke collar when a dog moves ahead of you on a walk.

Negative Reinforcement:  (R-) Remove something the dog dislikes to strengthen a behavior in order to get more of it in the future.

Examples:  A command to down is given and the owner pushes on the dog's kidneys.  Pain continues until the dog obeys.  The dog is rewarded/reinforced when the owner stops the pain.

Negative Punishment:  (P-) Taking something away the dog likes to suppress or reduce the likelihood of the behavior happening in the future.

Examples: Time outs.  The dog loses free time or attention when it nips or jumps.  The dog learns to jump or nip less to avoid the loss of attention.

Reinforcements and punishments depend entirely on the individual dog.  They can switch categories.

To figure out what is going on in a given situation, here are some simple questions to ask:

Does the behaviour start? Then it is reinforcement.

Does the behaviour stop? Then it is punishment.

Does the trainer DO something? Then it is positive.

Does the the trainer STOP doing something? Then it is negative.

Classical Conditioning/Pavlovian Conditioning
This technique is focused on changing the emotion of the dog when faced with a "trigger" (something that sets the dog off).  This is Pavlov's "ring a bell and the dog salivates".  
There is an expression in dog training that, "Pavlov is always sitting on your shoulder."  Dogs are always making decisions based on whether something is positive or negative for them.  If they have repeated (or one really poor) negative experience(s), they will make a negative association.  

Counter Conditioning

This technique focuses on changing behavior by teaching a different, specific behavior that is "counter" (sometimes opposite) to the problem behavior.  For example, if your dog finds the door to the kitchen garbage cupboard open an inch or so from time to time and then opens it to eat the garbage, encouraging the dog to receive a reward by closing the door with its nose is counter conditioning.

Applying the Techniques

The “Humane Hierarchy" (2009) as recommended by the Certification Council for Professional Dog Trainers (CCPDT) provides a step-based process to tackle unwanted behaviour and describes when to apply reinforcement and punishment. 

Here’s an overview of the ordered steps it suggests when trying to solve a problem:

1.  Ensure that any indicators for possible medical, nutritional, or health factors are addressed by a licensed veterinarian and ensure that potential factors in the physical environment are addressed.

2.  Redesign setting events, change motivations, and add or remove discriminative stimuli (cues) for the problem behavior.

3.  Add something the dogs wants (positive reinforcement) that is more reinforcing than the problem behavior.

4.  Reinforce an acceptable replacement behavior and remove the maintaining reinforcer

5.  Negative Punishment, Negative Reinforcement or Extinction (not at once, not suggested in order)

Other Key Concepts:

The Premack Principle (sometimes called "nothing for free") - Scientist David Premack showed that you can reinforce a behavior you want by adding a behavior that doesn't need reinforcing (if applied to kids, that's the "clean your room or no tv" or "eat your veggies or no dessert" school of thinking). 

Here is a useful explanation of how to apply Premack's Principle to dog training.

The People Side


Teaching Clients

Coaching Clients to Train Their Dogs - Terry Ryan


Making Mistakes

How to Make Brilliant Mistakes - Paul Schoemaker

Missed Cues (Hint": The Dog is NOT Blowing Off Your Command) - try asking your clients to imagine all the reasons why *they* might not sit when another person asks them to sit, and then consider that a dog too might have multiple reasons, none of which involve the dreaded "blowing off a command."


Compassion Fatigue & Burnout Management

(check out the blog posting on this topic)

We won't be listed the many, many sites that suggest over-stress leading to burnout can be handled by reducing your stress load, eating healthy, getting lots of sleep and generally keeping yourself in good shape.  These articles can be found with a quick Google.  What we do want to highlight it just how vitally important this especially is for trainers working with dogs with behavior issues and people with personal problems who share them with the trainer.  Hearing about a dog bite that could have been prevented or the breakdown of a client's marriage can bring a trainer the same level of stress that psychiatrists and therapists, nurses and disaster responders like paramedics experience.  Check whether you are already burned out by using the version of a test that specialists use to check for negative and positive affects of helping others who experience suffering and trauma. The ProQOL test has sub-scales for compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue.  Resources to help trainers support themselves in their work can be found at:








Dog Owner Stress

Working owners may have specific sources of stress and all owners with dogs who they consider to be "misbehaving" will have some form of stress.

Check out the "dog owner stress" blog post for some specific suggestions on helping owners manage stress.


Staffing, Volunteers and Interns

An article about a recent Canadian study of 3,000 workers noted that the vast majority of workers, across all generations (Baby Boomers, Gen Y, etc.) all said that most important to them at work are these items: salary, benefits, job security, work achievement, a supportive supervisor or boss, having the right information to do the job, and last but not least, having interesting, challenging work to do.  

The study also made some sweeping generalizations about 

There's a number of online places where employers can list jobs like: www.Brainhunter.comwww.Canadajobs.comwww.Careerpath.comwww.Gradhires.comwww.graduateresumes.comwww.Headhunter.comwww.Hotjobs.comwww.Monster.cawww.Monster.comwww.Womenforhire.comwww.Working.comwww.Workopolis.com

Existing employees referrals seem to have a higher success rate.

Working successfully with interns, volunteers and staff:

Job descriptions that include a training plan and progression from Sophia Yin, 

along with supports for their learning that include ways to test theory before putting theory into practice.

A raft of resources on training and working with volunteers at Volunteer.ca

Once you hire staff, here's a useful news feed to keep up on Canadian employment legislation news

There’s information for Canada/Ontario:

the laws you need to follow and payroll deductions

finding and training staff (and what regional labour markets are like) (not specific to people skills in working with dogs)

the hiring process – and ongoing talent management once you’ve hired

grants, loans and incentives for hiring and training

The Human Resources Management for Employers page has information on how to analyze and write job descriptions, and interview job applicants along with some best practices in ongoing talent management.

There is also information on orientation for new hires, apprenticeships, mentoring and coaching, and more at this site for employers and the ‘I want to hire’ section on the Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.

 Dealing with Dog Health and Special Needs Dogs

Advising Clients on Dog Care?

Home Dental Care:

A vet specialist in small animal dentistry provides an overview of the pros and cons of home dental care and the dental health products available in this presentation, along with providing a handout for clients with pictures on "how to" (and one even more in depth set of handouts that covers both topics.)  His key suggestions, gentle brushing, no chews that are really hard (especially cow hoves and bones, deer antlers and hard nylon), choose dental "helper" products carefully (most are overhyped) and avoid over-chewing tennis balls and tugs that can grind down teeth and expose roots and nerves.  Unfortunately, gentle brushing will reduce gum disease but not tackle the cavities (yes, dogs get them) that appear on the biting surfaces of teeth and usually end up in "end stage" at dental offices.A 2011  update for vets (yes, one of those self-serving, feed industry organized continuing medical education seminars also had some useful info. noting that un-erupted permanent teeth can often be totally "nothing" (showing up unexpectedly on x-rays) and at other times lead to dental pain and the formation of dangerous cysts.  It suggests having a vet check to be sure you know why teeth are missing and to see if there's any potential source of pain that could lead to behavior issues.  It also suggests owners check their dog's mouth for potential pain by noting whether placque is building up on one side or the other (an indication a dog is avoiding chewing on that side).  Front canines wearing down are also something to monitor.

Nail Clipping - search our blog for a summary of the topic including how to nail grind, tips to find the quick in black nails and video about hard-to-clip-dogs.

Activities and Tools For Special Needs Dogs

Activities for Deaf Dogs and Vibrating Collar Makers (noted if collars include shock)

 Virtual Agility League (VALOR), where reactive or shy dogs can earn titles on challenging and fun courses in a safe, comfortable, LOW STRESS, agility environment. Entry is by video. Your runs are judged and results e-mailed.

Rally-O is a virtual rally league similar to VALOR, entry by video.

 If you are working with a dog behavior client, you may wish to decide with your doctor whether you need a rabies prevention vaccine.

 Disaster and Succession Planning

You may want to review sites like this in advance of a business disaster of any type (which could include health issues or death of the sole owner)

Marketing

Thomas Leonard  observed that, "People love to buy things, but almost no one wants to be sold." Thousands of people with dogs who need training are eager to buy what you sell. They want the benefits, the convenience, the comfort or prestige that you can provide. Human beings are an "acquisitive" bunch. Of course, consumerism can be abused, but buying and selling -- basically EXCHANGES BETWEEN HUMANS -- is the process that creates the life (and the lifestyle) we all want. The "desire to acquire" goes deep.  If you aren’t making as many sales as you would like, the problem may not be with your customers, but with you and your approach. The problem may likely be one of the following:

1.  Not enough potential customers know about you or that your product could enrich their lives. This is a marketing problem, and as a business leader it is your job to solve it. Let people know about you, get out and get in the game!

2.  Or, the other possibility, is that you’re trying too hard to "sell." 

Personally, at Dog Friendship we have a deep-seated aversion to being sold anything. We see websites that seem manipulative or high- pressured, sales techniques that fail to build trust or credibility, and they just aren't attractive.  Yet people do want to buy benefits! They buy solutions to their problems. They buy things that make their lives better, easier, simpler, healthier or more comfortable. They buy stuff that makes them AND THEIR DOG FAMILY MEMBERS happy. And they buy from people they know and like and trust.  If enough people "know and like and trust" you, they will listen when you offer a product or service that will make their lives better. If they "know and like and trust" you, they will flock to your door and you’ll make all the sales you need.  Start your marketing from this place and you'll have a much better chance of success.


Where are your clients online? - Useful article from VetLearn (free registration required) shows that  one in ten pets is on Facebook, Twitter or YouTube being shown off to the world (British paper the Telegraph, July 13, 2011). Plus people are shopping for their pets, talking to other pet owners, asking vet questions, getting pet-friendly travel and dining recommendations (yes, sometimes dogs are allowed), finding new vets and rating theirs, and posting pet memorials.

Breaking the Ice with Veterinarians and Other Professionals (for Referrals)

This article offers some useful conversation openers!

Why Care About Complaints

Great article that highlights "why care" about complains and how to start to handle them.

Setting Boundaries/Challenging Clients

Five Tips article

Car & Truck Signs

Magnetic signs are signs made of magnets with high quality vinyl on top (probably about $75 - $150 for two car door signs) and can offer useful promotion without affecting the resale value of your car. They are usually placed on the left or right front door or back of the vehicle.  If you do use them, make sure your referral form contains a line that says "saw sign on a car/truck".  These signs do not have any income tax effect.

They do have some downsides - they must be removed for a car wash and carefully put back on, they can fall off if you brush up against something like a tree, if it's not put back properly after cleaning or if put over a curve or emblem on the vehicle (creates a wind pocket that can flip the magnetic off at high speeds) and they can harm fresh paint (paint must cure for 60 days minimum.) When installing magnetic signs, ensure that both the vehicle surface and the magnet surface is clean. If even a small amount of dirt is left on the surface it increases the chances of the signs falling off and the chance that the vehicle paint job will be damaged.   They can also be stolen (usually more often than on a car, the ones on a truck or van are often just glanced at and assumed to be part of the paint job).

Remember to periodically remove the sign and wash and wax underneath the magnet. Cleaning magnetic signs is relatively easy, use any household cleaner and a soft cloth. Wet the soft cloth or sponge and wipe down the sign, clean and dry the area it will be replaced on thoroughly before reattaching. 

GREETING your CLIENTS.doc GREETING your CLIENTS.doc
Size : 37 Kb
Type : doc
Customer Client or Friend.doc Customer Client or Friend.doc
Size : 31.5 Kb
Type : doc
Thanking Clients - And Referrals.doc Thanking Clients - And Referrals.doc
Size : 27 Kb
Type : doc

 Training Tools

 A meta-review on the medical effects of choke collars and collar corrections.  Your additions are welcome!!

As of November, 2011 there appears to be strong evidence that choking collars and collar corrections can contribute to increased intraocular pressure (dogs with eye conditions should wear a harness), paralysis and disc/cervical injury, increased aggression, traumatic respiratory emergencies and collapsed tracheas.  There is weaker evidence needing further study indicating that choking collars and collar corrections can cause postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) and fractures of the lateral bones of the larynx.


PROFESSIONALS WHO BLOG ABOUT DOG BEHAVIOR TOPICS (see also the links page and the listing of trainers):

Steve Dale

Sue Alexander 

Sophia Yin

Debbie Jacobs


Listservs and Yahoo Groups


Helpful Training Videos

Building Drive in A Dog - Susan Garrett 


DOG AGGRESSION

Ian Dunbar, Pat Miller, and Jean Donaldson have all written extensively about "bite inhibition." This is where the young puppy learns not to bite people (Or other dogs). All three regard it as very important that the puppy under 4 months old have opportunities for mouth play, because that's how they learn that the degree of force also matters. This is where they learn that even if they "nip," they shouldn't break skin.

Some people call this "soft mouth" vs "hard mouth," although the terms are also used in other ways.

If you get an adult rescue with a "hard mouth," you can improve it with hand feeding, but most of the trainers I know generally assume that a dog with a hard mouth may revert to nips that are hard enough to hurt (although not necessarily breaking skin) in times of excitement.

http://www.whole-dog-journal.com/issues/13_6/features/Bite-Inhibition_16232-1.html

Some behaviorists use the term "bite restraint" to indicate a dog that may nip but that understands to limit the amount of force used. They will pinch, might bruise, but again, shouldn't break the skin. Most just call all of that bite inhibition, though. But the point is the degree of force is also important.

Some writers have noted that Thorndyke's Law of Effect (dogs do what works) applies to biting and may lead to escalation -  because a bite that breaks the skin almost always succeeds, from the dog's point of view. The troublesome person retreats or the desired food is dropped. The dog learns that bites work, and when they learn that, a lot of bite restraint goes out the window.  However, 
Jean Donaldson speak not just about bite INHIBITION (the amount of control a dog exerts over his mouth and the amount of resulting damage) but also about bite THRESHOLD (how much provocation or fear-causing stimulus it takes before a dog will bite - this is also called "trigger stacking" when fear-causing stimuli either happen simultaneously or very close in time to one another ), similar to The Dog Bite Project with Cara Shannon where mitigating factors for bites are considered.  My own personal view is that dogs bite for a reason (aggression is generally based on fear or some type of neurological/medical issue damage) and when dogs who have bitten are effectively managed and their baseline fear is reduced, they don't continue to escalte in biting behavior.

Dr. Dunbar developed a very specific technical scale for determining how good a dog's bite inhibition is based on the amount of damage done. Many shelters and rescue societies use this. Here's a copy from the Association of Pet Dog Trainers.

http://www.apdt.com/veterinary/assets/pdf/Ian%20Dunbar%20Dog%20Bite%20Scale.pdf

Dunbar, APDT, and even CDC (Center for Disease Control) assert that 99% of dog bites are Level 1 or 2 {on the Dunbar scale}"--no skin breaks. (see link above)

Level 3 is where the dog does not intend to break skin, but the person pulls their arm away, causing a piercing "of no more than 1/2 the length of the dog's teeth," usually in one direction. The dog was holding on, but not biting down. Dunbar believes that these dogs CAN be rehabilitated, but that it requires significant amounts of training.

Once you get to Level 4, the dog bit hard enough to do serious damage and to lacerate. The bite is more than half the length of the tooth. Lacerations are often in two directions, indicating the dog was shaking their head from side to side.  Level 5 and 6 are basically multiple Level 4 bites.  There is some feeling in the dog community that dogs that reach Level 4 have a very poor prognosis. 


So I believe Dunbar's work is the most common origin of the idea that there's a big difference between a dog who bruises and a dog who lacerates.

However, there are other evaluation scales, other experts, other research. I know some behaviourists, for example, consider bites to the head or neck to be a whole different level of aggressiveness than bites to the arms and legs. Dunbar, however, generally argues that it is the depth and type of bite, not the location, that matters most (since the relative height and position of the person can affect where they get bitten).
 

Focused Behavior and Training Books:

Training

Positive Training for Show Dogs - Vicki Ronchette

Treating Separation Anxiety - Malena DeMartini-Price


Clinical Texts

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Beaver BV

Canine Behavior

www.elsevier.com

1999

 

Hart BL, Hart LA, Bain MJ

Canine and Feline Behavioral Therapy, Second Edition

www.blackwellprofessional.com

2006

Horwitz D, Mills D, Heath S

BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine, 2nd edition

BSAVA, www.wiley.com

2009

Horwitz D, Neilson J

Blackwell’s Five Minute Behavior Consult: Canine and Feline Behavior

www.blackwellprofessional.com

2007

Landsberg GM, Hunthausen WL,

Ackerman L

Handbook of Behavioural Problems of the Dog and Cat (2nd edition), www.elsevier.com

2003

Overall KL

Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Small Animals, Mosby, www.elsevier.com

1997

 

Learning Theory, Cognition

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Hauser M

Wild Minds: What Animals

Really Think, www.henryholt.com

2000

Reisberg D

Cognition: Exploring the Science of the Mind (4th edition), ISBN:9780393198515

www.wwnorton.com

2005

Schwartz B, Robbins SJ

Psychology of Learning and Behavior (5th  edition), www.wwnorton.com

2001

Reznikova Z

Animal Intelligence: from individual to social cognition,

Cambridge University Press

2007

Mazur J

Learning and Behavior, 6th edition

 

2009

Wasserman EA, Zentall TR (eds)

Comparative Cognition: Experimental Explorations of Animal Intelligence, www.oup.com/us 

2006

 

Neurology/Neuroscience/ Physiology/Endocrinology

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Bear MF, Connors B, Paradiso M, et al

Neuroscience—Exploring the Brain (3rd edition),

www.lww.com

2006

Carlson NR

Physiology of Behavior (10th Edition);

Allyn and Bacon Publishers

2009

Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM

Principles of Neural Science, 4th edition

 

2000, new edition pending                           2009

Lorenz MD, Kornegay JN

 

Handbook of Veterinary Neurology (4th edition),

www.elsevier.com  

2004

Chrisman CL, Mariani C, Platt S

Neurology for the Small Animal Practitioner

Teton New Media

2003

Nelson RJ

An Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology (3rd edition),

www.sinauer.com

2005

Nelson RJ

Biology of Aggression; Oxford University Press, www.oup.com/us 

2005 

also 

Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers -  by Dr. Robert Sapolsky (or just about anything from Sapolsky!) 

This book has been around a while, so used copies are readily available.

Pharmacology

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Crowell-Davis SL, Murray T

Veterinary Psychopharmacology

www.blackwellprofessional.com

2005

Dodman NH, Shuster L

Psychopharmacology of Animal Behavior Disorders

www.blackwellpublishing.com

1998

Sadock, Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ

Pocket Handbook of Psychiatric Drug Treatment (4th edition), Williams & Wilkins, www.lww.com

2005

Schatzberg AF,

Nemeroff CB

The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology (4th edition)

American Psychiatric Press www.appi.org/

2009

 

 

Schwartz S

Psychoactive Herbs in Veterinary Medicine

www.blackwellprofessional.com

2005

Stahl SM

Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications (3rd Edition), Cambridge Univ. Press (also online edition), www.cambridge.org/us/medicine/stahl/

2009

 

Stahl SM

The Prescriber's Guide, 3rd edition

http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/

2009

 

Domestic Species Specific Behavior

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Coppinger R,

Coppinger L

Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, Scribner, www.simonsays.com

2001

Broom DM, Fraser AF

Domestic Animal Behaviour and Welfare (4th Edition), Oxford University Press,  

www.oup.com

2007

Houpt KA

Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists (4th Edition) www.iowastatepress.com

2004

Lindsay SR

Applied Dog Behavior and Training; Iowa State University Press, Volumes 1-3, www.iowastatepress.com

2000-2003

Miklosi A

Dog Behavior, Evolution, and Cognition

Oxford Press

2007

Price EO

Principles and Applications of Domestic Animal Behavior

2008

Price EO

Animal Domestication and Behavior,

www.cabi-publishing.org

2002

Scott FP, Fuller JL

Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog www.press.uchicago.edu 

1998

(Reprint of 1965)

Serpell J

The Domestic Dog: its Evolution, Behaviour, and Interactions with People; www.cambridge.org/us

1996

Sheldon JW

Wild Dogs: The Natural History of the Nondomestic Canidae;

www.blackburnpress.com

2004 (reprint of 1992)

 

Ethology/Genetics

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Alcock J

Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach (9th ed.); www.sinauer.com  E-Book available: (www.coursesmart.com/9780878932252),

2009

 

Grandin  T

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals, Academic Press; www.elsevier.com

1998

Wilson EO

 

Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (25th anniversary edition); www.hup.harvard.edu

2000 (1975 reprint)

 

Quantification of Behavior

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Lehner PN

The Handbook of Ethological Methods (2nd edition), www.cambridge.org 

1998

Martin P, Bateson P

Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide (3rd edition); www.cambridge.org 

2007

Dawkins MS

Observing Animal Behaviour : Design and Analysis of Quantitative Data

2007

.

Animal Welfare

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Appleby MC,

Hughes BO, Elson

Animal Welfare, www.cabi-publishing.org

1997

Broom DM, Fraser AF

Domestic Animal Behavior and Welfare (4th Edition), Oxford University Press

www.oup.com

2007

Fraser D

 

 

Understanding Animal Welfare: The Science in its Cultural Context

Universities  Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Publication

www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell

2008

Grandin T

Improving Animal Welfare: A Practical Approach

Wallingford CABI Publishing

2009

Mason G, Rushen J (eds)

Stereotypic Animal Behavior: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare

2006

Mellor D, Patterson-Kane E,  Stafford KJ

The Sciences of Animal Welfare

2009

Moberg G, Mench JA

The Biology of Animal Stress: Basic Principles and Implications for Animal Welfare

www.cabi-publishing.org

2000


DOG PLAY

AUTHOR/EDITOR

TITLE AND PUBLISHER WEBSITE

YEAR

Marc Bekoff and John A. Byers

Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative and Ecological Perspectives,

Cambridge University Press

1998

Robert Fagen

Animal Play Behavior,

Oxford University Press

1981